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Activated protein C resistance caused by a common factor V mutation has a single origin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209414
Source
Thromb Res. 1997 Feb 1;85(3):237-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-1997
Author
B. Zöller
A. Hillarp
B. Dahlbäck
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Lund University, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Thromb Res. 1997 Feb 1;85(3):237-43
Date
Feb-1-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Base Sequence
Exons
Factor V - genetics
Female
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Molecular Sequence Data
Point Mutation
Protein C - genetics - metabolism
Restriction Mapping
Sweden
Abstract
A point mutation (FV:R506Q) in the human coagulation factor V gene is associated with resistance to activated protein C and life-long increased risk of venous thrombosis. The mutation is common in populations of Caucasian origin but virtually absent among other populations. In this study of 140 healthy Swedish volunteers and 110 homozygotes for the FV:R506Q mutation, we determined the allele frequencies of the FV:R506Q mutation and four other dimorphisms, C/T at nucleotide positions 2298 and 2325, and A/G at nucleotide positions 2379 and 2391. Manifest linkage disequilibrium was found between the FV:R506Q mutation and the four different dimorphisms. The finding of a single FV:R506Q haplotype in all homozygotes constitutes strong evidence of a common ancestor of Swedish individuals with the FV:R506Q mutation.
PubMed ID
9058498 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Ontario, Canada, with decreased susceptibility to quinolones by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, auxotyping, serotyping and plasmid content.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208613
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1997 May;46(5):383-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
N. Harnett
S. Brown
G. Riley
R. Terro
C. Krishnan
M. Pauzé
K H Yeung
Author Affiliation
Central Public Health Laboratory, Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, Canada.
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1997 May;46(5):383-90
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
4-Quinolones
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Typing Techniques
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Gonorrhea - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - classification - drug effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Plasmids
Restriction Mapping
Serotyping
Abstract
The incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to quinolones increased from 0.18% (63 of 3285) in 1992 to 0.56% (15 of 2663) in 1993 and 0.62% (46 of 2846) in 1994. In all, 65 of the 67 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to quinolones were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), auxotyping, serotyping and plasmid content. The strains were distributed among 14 auxotype/serovar (A/S) classes. Thirty isolates (46.2%) which were penicillin-susceptible with ciprofloxacin MIC90 of 0.12 mg/L and norfloxacin MIC90 of 1.0 mg/L belonged to a single A/S class, OUHL/IA-2. All but two of the 30 isolates had identical PFGE restriction profiles with NheI restriction endonuclease. Fifteen isolates (23.1%) with MICs in the intermediate (or resistant) categories for penicillin and with ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MIC90 of 0.25 and 4.0 mg/L and (0.5 and 4.0 mg/L) respectively, belonged to A/S class P/IB-1. The 15 isolates showed nine different patterns with NheI and eight patterns with SpeI restriction endonucleases. Two of three beta-lactamase-producing (PPNG) isolates belonged to A/S class P/IB-5 and had a dissimilar PFGE restriction profile with NheI endonuclease; the other isolate belonged to A/S class P/IB-8. The remaining 17 isolates were distributed among 11 A/S classes. Three isolates within the common A/S class NR/IB-1 were subdivided into two types by PFGE as were three isolates belonging to A/S class NR/IB-2. Overall the 65 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were distributed into 30 NheI and 26 SpeI macrorestriction profiles. All but one isolate harboured the 2.6-MDa cryptic plasmid and 18 isolates carried the 24.5-MDa transferable plasmid. The three PPNG isolates carried the 4.5-MDa Asian beta-lactamase-producing plasmid and a 25.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was found in the two TRNG isolates.
PubMed ID
9152033 View in PubMed
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Assembly of a 1-Mb restriction-mapped cosmid contig spanning the candidate region for Finnish congenital nephrosis (NPHS1) in 19q13.1.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211815
Source
Genomics. 1996 Jun 1;34(2):223-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-1996
Author
A S Olsen
A. Georgescu
S. Johnson
A V Carrano
Author Affiliation
Human Genome Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551, USA.
Source
Genomics. 1996 Jun 1;34(2):223-5
Date
Jun-1-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19
Cloning, Molecular
Cosmids
Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI
Exons
Finland - epidemiology
Gene Library
Genes, Recessive
Genetic markers
Humans
Incidence
Nephrosis - congenital - epidemiology - genetics
Restriction Mapping
Abstract
We describe the assembly of a 1-Mb cosmid contig and restriction map spanning the candidate region for Finnish congenital nephrosis (NPHS1) in 19q13.1. The map was constructed from 16 smaller contigs assembled by fingerprinting, a BAC and a PAC clone, and 42 previously unmapped cosmids. In most cases, single-step cosmid walks were sufficient to join two previously assembled contigs, and all but one gap was filled from this cosmid contig library. The remaining gap of about 19 kb was spanned with a single BAC and a single PAC clone. EcoRI mapping of a dense set of overlapping clones validated the assembly of the map and indicated a length of 1040 kb for the contig. This high-resolution clone map provides an ideal resource for gene identification through cDNA selection, exon trapping, and DNA sequencing.
PubMed ID
8661053 View in PubMed
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[Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Russia and their typing using pulse electrophoresis].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212008
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1996 May-Jun;(3):60-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
B I Marakusha
K. Darwich
I S Tartakovskii
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1996 May-Jun;(3):60-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Typing Techniques - statistics & numerical data
Chromosomes, Bacterial - genetics
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods - statistics & numerical data
Food Microbiology
Guinea Pigs
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Mice
Restriction Mapping
Russia
Sewage - microbiology
Virulence
Abstract
On the basis of specially developed scheme for the isolation of Listeria strains comprising 2 enrichment stages and the use of growth inhibitors, 128 L. monocytogenes cultures were isolated from clinical material, foodstuffs and sewage water. Highly virulent L.monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical material belonged to serovar 4b (54%) and 1/2a (38%), while those isolated from foodstuffs and sewage water belonged to 4b (74%). The restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the isolated cultures with the use of restrictase EcoR1 on the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) made it possible to distinguish Listeria strains in accordance with 5 types of restrictograms. The restrictograms of highly virulent L. monocytogenes strains, serovar 4b, belonged to types 1 and 2, while those of L. monocytogenes strains, serovar 1/2a, belonged to types 2 and 3. The comparative use of different methods for typing L. monocytogenes (sero-, phago-, bio- and resistotyping, the analysis of plasmid composition and restriction analysis) revealed that the combination of serotyping and restriction analysis on the basis of PFGE proved to be most promising for the characterization of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains and the assessment of their epidemic importance.
PubMed ID
8771733 View in PubMed
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Characterization and cloning of a 37.6-kb plasmid carried by Legionella pneumophila recovered from patients and hospital water over a 12-year period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209385
Source
Can J Microbiol. 1997 Feb;43(2):193-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
S D Mansfield
T J Marrie
G S Bezanson
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
Can J Microbiol. 1997 Feb;43(2):193-7
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cloning, Molecular
Hospitals
Humans
Legionella pneumophila - genetics - isolation & purification
Legionnaires' Disease - epidemiology - microbiology
Molecular Epidemiology
Plasmids - genetics
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Restriction Mapping
Water Microbiology
Abstract
For 12 years, strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 harbouring a 37.6-kb (23 MDa) plasmid have predominated among patient and potable water isolates at the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, N.S. Plasmid DNA recovered from 24 strains isolated between 1983 and 1995 was digested with the restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, KpnI, PvuII, XbaI, and BamHI. The distribution of cutting sites indicated that the 23-MDa size group had remained essentially unchanged during this period, suggesting the persistence of a single plasmid type. Further fragmentation pattern analysis permitted the construction of a physical map of the prototype 23-MDA plasmid, pLp4269. Double digestion with BamHI-HindIII enabled the cloning of 94.4% of pLp4269 into pBluescript vector. A 2.1-kb fragment was not clonable. Plasmid pLp4269 is the first of the smaller Legionella extrachromosomal DNAs to be characterized in this way.
PubMed ID
9090107 View in PubMed
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Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37611
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1711-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1990
Author
M A Salih
D. Danielsson
A. Bäckman
D A Caugant
M. Achtman
P. Olcén
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1711-9
Date
Aug-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antigenic Variation - genetics
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - genetics
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Fimbriae, Bacterial - immunology
Genotype
Humans
Lipopolysaccharides - genetics
Meningitis - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Neisseria meningitidis - classification - genetics - immunology
Phenotype
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Restriction Mapping
Sudan - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985).
PubMed ID
1975593 View in PubMed
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A cluster of surgical wound infections due to unrelated strains of group A streptococci.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221095
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993 May;14(5):265-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
Author
F B Jamieson
K. Green
D E Low
A E Simor
C. Goldman
J. Ng
A. McGeer
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993 May;14(5):265-7
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cluster analysis
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Diagnosis, Differential
Hospitals
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Restriction Mapping
Shock, Septic - diagnosis
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcus pyogenes - isolation & purification
Surgical Wound Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Group A streptococci account for less than 1% of all surgical wound infections but are an important cause of nosocomial outbreaks. We report here a cluster of four group A streptococcal infections that occurred within an 11-day period on a single surgical service. The index case presented with toxic shock-like syndrome. Epidemiologic investigation did not identify any relationship between infections. Restriction endonuclease analysis and M and T typing found the four isolates to be unrelated. Restriction endonuclease analysis is a useful tool for determining relatedness of nosocomial isolates of group A streptococci.
PubMed ID
8496580 View in PubMed
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Comparison of epidemiological marker methods for identification of Salmonella typhimurium isolates from an outbreak caused by contaminated chocolate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75633
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Sep;27(9):2019-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1989
Author
G. Kapperud
J. Lassen
K. Dommarsnes
B E Kristiansen
D A Caugant
E. Ask
M. Jahkola
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Sep;27(9):2019-24
Date
Sep-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Bacteriophage Typing
Bird Diseases - microbiology
Birds
Cacao
Comparative Study
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Disease Outbreaks
Finland
Food Contamination
Humans
Norway
Phenotype
Plants, Edible
Plasmids
Restriction Mapping
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - microbiology
Salmonella Infections, Animal - microbiology
Salmonella typhimurium - classification - enzymology - genetics
Serotyping
Abstract
Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were used in conjunction with serotyping, bacteriophage typing, and biochemical fingerprinting to trace epidemiologically related isolates of Salmonella typhimurium from an outbreak caused by contaminated chocolate products in Norway and Finland. To evaluate the efficiency of the epidemiological marker methods, isolates from the outbreak were compared with five groups of control isolates not known to be associated with the outbreak. Both plasmid profile analysis and phage typing provided further discrimination over that produced by serotyping and biochemical fingerprinting. Plasmid profile analysis and phage typing were equally reliable in differentiating the outbreak isolates from the epidemiologically unrelated controls and were significantly more effective than multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. The greatest differentiation was achieved when plasmid profile analysis and phage typing were combined to complement serotyping and biochemical fingerprinting. However, none of the methods employed, including restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid DNA, were able to distinguish the outbreak isolates from five isolates recovered in Norway and Finland over a period of years from dead passerine birds and a calf.
PubMed ID
2674198 View in PubMed
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Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and surface layer protein A gene sequence typing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160131
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Feb;46(2):431-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
George Killgore
Angela Thompson
Stuart Johnson
Jon Brazier
Ed Kuijper
Jacques Pepin
Eric H Frost
Paul Savelkoul
Brad Nicholson
Renate J van den Berg
Haru Kato
Susan P Sambol
Walter Zukowski
Christopher Woods
Brandi Limbago
Dale N Gerding
L Clifford McDonald
Author Affiliation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Feb;46(2):431-7
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis - methods
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Bacterial Toxins - genetics
Bacterial Typing Techniques - methods
Canada
Clostridium difficile - classification
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods
Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous - epidemiology - microbiology
Genotype
Great Britain
Humans
Minisatellite Repeats
Molecular Epidemiology - methods
Netherlands
Reproducibility of Results
Restriction Mapping - methods
Ribotyping - methods
Sensitivity and specificity
Sequence Analysis, DNA - methods
United States
Abstract
Using 42 isolates contributed by laboratories in Canada, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), surface layer protein A gene sequence typing (slpAST), PCR-ribotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed the discriminating ability and typeability of each technique as well as the agreement among techniques in grouping isolates by allele profile A (AP-A) through AP-F, which are defined by toxinotype, the presence of the binary toxin gene, and deletion in the tcdC gene. We found that all isolates were typeable by all techniques and that discrimination index scores for the techniques tested ranged from 0.964 to 0.631 in the following order: MLVA, REA, PFGE, slpAST, PCR-ribotyping, MLST, and AFLP. All the techniques were able to distinguish the current epidemic strain of C. difficile (BI/027/NAP1) from other strains. All of the techniques showed multiple types for AP-A (toxinotype 0, binary toxin negative, and no tcdC gene deletion). REA, slpAST, MLST, and PCR-ribotyping all included AP-B (toxinotype III, binary toxin positive, and an 18-bp deletion in tcdC) in a single group that excluded other APs. PFGE, AFLP, and MLVA grouped two, one, and two different non-AP-B isolates, respectively, with their AP-B isolates. All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18039796 View in PubMed
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68 records – page 1 of 7.