This article contains results of the comparative study of the functional state of respiratory and cardiovascular systems of almost healthy students (man) of age 19-22, inhabitants of mountain and plain regions of Latin America during their adaptation to the conditions of middle Russia. We have established that there are reliable distinctions in the functional state of cardio-respiratory system of students from mountain and plain regions of Latin America. So for representatives of mountain regions of LA were typical higher indicators of vital capacity, permeability of large and medium bronchial tubes, stroke volume, lower indicators of heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, myocard tension index, but higher coefficient of myocard efficiency than for inhabitants the plain. Considerable distinctions have been observed also in the intercommunication between different indicators. There have been marked considerable correlation connections between small bronchial tubes permeability and cardiovascular system indicators for plain inhabitants. For mountain regions inhabitants almost every indicator of bronchial tubes permeability correlate reliably with vital capacity, but didn't correlate with hemodynamics indicators.
AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256 participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake was directly measured during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol. Body mass and height were also measured. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD relative maximal oxygen uptake was 52.8 +/- 6.5 for boys and 46.9 +/- 7.2 mL/kg/min for girls. Eight percent of the boys and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among 9-year olds. However, the limitations of the few earlier studies make reliable comparisons difficult.
The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight status in youth. To accomplish this aim we analyzed data from annual school-based surveys of cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometry conducted between 2004 and 2006. The first analysis was performed on a cohort of 902 youth aged 6-15 years followed for 12 months to assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels determined from a graded maximal field test and the risk of becoming overweight. The second analysis was conducted on a cohort of 222 youth followed for 2 years to assess the continuous association between annual changes fitness and weight gain. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness were characterized by higher waist circumference and disproportionate weight gain over the 12-month follow-up period (P
We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) has an important place in the history of the discovery of respiratory gases because he was undoubtedly the first person to prepare oxygen and describe some of its properties. Despite this, his contributions have often been overshadowed by those of Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, who also played critical roles in preparing the gas and understanding its nature. Sadly, Scheele was slow to publish his discovery and therefore Priestley is rightly recognized as the first person to report the preparation of oxygen. This being said, the thinking of both Scheele and Priestley was dominated by the phlogiston theory, and it was left to Lavoisier to elucidate the true nature of oxygen. In addition to his work on oxygen, Scheele was enormously productive in other areas of chemistry. Arguably he discovered seven new elements and many other compounds. However, he kept a low profile during his life as a pharmacist, and he did not have strong links with contemporary prestigious institutions such as the Royal Society in England or the French Acad?mie des Sciences. He was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science but only attended one meeting. Partly as a result, he remains a somewhat nebulous figure despite the critical contribution he made to the history of respiratory gases and his extensive researches in other areas of chemistry. His death at the age of 43 may have been hastened by his habit of tasting the chemicals that he worked on.
The study examines respiratory parameters in healthy young males from Western Siberia. The correlations between the parameters are analyzed and the functional structure of the respiratory system in the summer and in the winter is identified. It was discovered that different regulatory programs operate depending on the temperature of inhaled air. The study shows that the changes in the oxygen request of the body in the summer are achieved through the changes in the volume of pulmonary ventilation ("ventilation" or "summer program"). In the winter, when maintaining the level of energy processes in the body is in conflict with maintaining thermal homeostasis in the respiratory regions of the lungs, pulmonary ventilation becomes limited and the number of functioning lung units is reduced. At the same time, for providing compensation, lung diffusion capacity increases ("diffusion" or "winter program"). This means that the functioning of the apparatus of external respiration is optimized in the winter.
Changes of an oxygen supply system in type I diabetes mellitus patients of pre-pubertal, pubertal and middle age were investigated. It is supposed that diabetes mellitus patients of pre-pubertal and pubertal age are the less resistant to hypoxic hypoxia. For the middle age patients oxygen concentration used could be considered as curative and could be applied in the interval hypoxic training course.