Cancer deaths among white, foreign-born residents of New York State (exclusive of New York City) during the years 1969 through 1971 were analyzed according to country of birth. The largest numbers of immigrants came from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Poland, Italy, USSR, and Canada. Several distinctive features emerged from these data: Irish immigrants have an increased risk of dying from oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal, lung, and prostate cancers. Among all migrant groups studied, contrasting mortality patterns observed for carcinomas of the stomach, colon, and rectum provide further support for the concept that these neoplasms result from different etiologic processes. For the leukemias, lymphomas, and carcinomas of the breast and colon, each of the migrant groups acquired the higher risk common to others in the host country. This rise in risk suggests a major environmental component for cancers of these sites.
During 1960-69, 321 reported deaths among Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Indians, and Aleuts) were attributed to cancer. This number is not significantly different from the cancer mortality of U.S. Caucasians during this period, but is significantly higher than that of U.S. Indians. The mortality of Alaskan natives from cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, kidneys, and salivary glands was significantly increased. Among Alaskan Caucasians, only nasopharyngeal cancer was in excess in both sexes. Deficits in mortality among Alaskan Caucasians for cancers of other sites may be attributable, at least in part, to selection factors associated with the migration of healthy workers into the State.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2148.
Histograms of all age-standardized (world population) death certification rates for 23 cancers or groups of cancers for the period 1990-92 were produced for 35 countries of the European region (including a dozen new national entities) providing data to the World ealth Organization database. Substantial variations were observed in mortality from most common sites. For lung cancer the rate in males was 81/100,000 in Hungary, followed by Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Russian Federation and Poland, while in Sweden, Iceland and Norway, where comprehensive antismoking campaigns have been adopted over the last two decades, the rates were between 24 and 30 per 100,000 males. The lung cancer epidemic in European females is still in its early phases in most countries, with the sole exception of Scotland (29/100,000, ie the highest rates in the world), the rest of the UK, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland and Hungary. With reference to colorectal cancer, the highest rates were in the Czech Republic (38/100,000 males, 21/100,000 females) and other central European countries, and the lowest in Greece, Romania and a few Republics of the former Soviet Union, as well as Finland and Sweden. The highest gastric cancer mortality rates were in the Russian Federation (41/100,000 males, 18/100,000 females), followed by a few Republics of the former Soviet Union and Portugal in Western Europe. The highest breast cancer rates (25-29 per 100,000 females) were in the UK, Belgium, Ireland, The Netherlands, Denmark and other Scandinavian countries. For overall cancer mortality, the range of variation was between 260/100,000 in Hungary and 132/100,000 in Sweden for males, and between 142/100,000 in Denmark and 76/100,000 in Kyrgizstan for females, ie approximately a twofold variation in both sexes.
This paper summarizes a comprehensive study of cancer survival in Sweden from 1960 to 1998. A total of 1021421 persons and 40 different cancer sites were included in the analyses. The main outcome measure is the relative survival rate (RSR) for different sites and follow-up times after diagnosis. The 10-year RSR for all sites combined has increased steadily-from 26.6% among men and 41.8% among women in the 1960s, to 44.6% (men) and 57.6% (women) in the 1990s. The expectation of life for a person diagnosed with cancer today is about 7 years longer than that of one diagnosed during the mid-1960s. About 3 years are gained due to changes in the relative distribution of various cancer types and about 4 years due to improved relative survival. During the 1990s substantial survival improvements were observed not only for uncommon types, such as testicular cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and some other haematologic malignancies, but also for cancer of the rectum, kidney and malignant melanoma. Survival for breast and cervical cancer also improved during the 1990s, but not that for pancreatic, liver or lung cancer.
A cohort of 1020 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene and employed for a minimum period of three months in eight plants during 1925-85 was studied. Air levels of toluene were available since 1943 in one plant and since 1969 in most. Based on these measurements and on present concentrations of toluene in blood and subcutaneous fat, the yearly average air levels in each plant were estimated. They reached a maximum of about 450 ppm in the 1940s and 1950s but were only about 30 ppm by the mid-1980s. Exposure to benzene had occurred up to the beginning of the 1960s. Compared with regional rates, total mortality did not increase during the observation period 1952-86 (129 observed deaths v 125 expected; SMR = 1.03). There was no increase in mortality from non-malignant diseases of the lungs, nervous system, or gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. There was no overall excess of tumours 1958-85 (68 v 54, SMR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.95-1.7). Among the specific cancers, only those of the respiratory tract were significantly increased (16 v 9; SMR = 1.76, CI = 1.03-2.9). Statistical significance was not attained, however, when only subjects with an exposure period of at least five years and a latency period of at least 10 years were considered. Further, there were no dose response relations with cumulated toluene dose (ppm years). There were no significant increases of tumours at other sites, including leukaemias/lymphomas/myelomas.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden (Nyqvist, Helmfrid, Dr Wingren); and Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden (Dr Augustsson).
The aim of this study was to examine mortality causes and cancer incidence in a population cohort that have resided in close proximity to highly metal-contaminated sources, characterized by contamination of, in particular, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb).
Data from Swedish registers were used to calculate standardized mortality and cancer incidence ratios. An attempt to relate cancer incidence to metal contamination levels was made.
Significantly elevated cancer incidences were observed for overall malignant cancers in both genders, cancer in the digestive system, including colon, rectum, and pancreas, and cancers in prostate among men. Dose-response relationships between Cd and Pb levels in soil and cancer risks were found.
Cancer observations made, together with previous studies of metal uptake in local vegetables, may imply that exposure to local residents have occurred primarily via oral intake of locally produced foodstuffs.
The mortality with respect to the total population of Finnish physicians during the period 1953 to 1972 has been analysed and compared with the corresponding statistics for the general Finnish population, for Finnish foundry workers, and for American physicians. It was found that the overall mortality was lower for male physicians than that for the general population or for foundry workers, but was clearly higher than that for American physicians. Male physicians did not exhibit any major differences from the general population with regard to cardiovascular diseases and suicide, but had a lower mortality from malignant neoplasms, accidents and "other diseases" (including infectious diseases). The explanation of cancer mortality being lower than expected among male physicians was mainly to be found in a deficit in lung cancer. Although female physicians had higher life expectancy than male physicians and the female general Finnish population, they did not show any clear deficit for cancer. In respect of all specialists, surgical specialists had the lowest mortality; general practitioners had the highest mortality. Most of these variations were attributable to differences in coronary mortality, but mortality from lung cancer was also remarkably low among surgeons. Differences of a similar type were also found between occupational sub-categories; private practitioners had the highest, and research workers and central hospital physicians the lowest mortality figures. The lower cancer mortality among male physicians, as contrasted with the general population, is probably attributable to differences in smoking habits; about 22% of male physicians smoked in 1973, whereas earlier studies by others have indicated that the corresponding proportion was about 50% in the general population. In contrast, the differences in mortality between different specialist categories probably arises from other factors, since Finnish physicians reportedly display a relatively homogeneous smoking pattern.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: It is still unclear if men and women are equally susceptible to the hazards of tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine smoking related mortality among men and women. DESIGN: In 1963 a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits was sent out to a random sample from the 1960 Swedish census population. Date and cause of death have been collected for the deceased in the cohort through 1996. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: The survey included a total of 27 841 men and 28 089 women, aged 18-69 years. The response rate was 93.1% among the men and 95.4% among the women. MAIN RESULTS: After adjustment for age and place of residence positive associations were found between cigarette smoking and mortality from ischaemic heart disease, aortic aneurysm, bronchitis and emphysema, cancer of the lung, upper aerodigestive sites, bladder, pancreas in both men and women, but not from cerebrovascular disease. When the effect of amount of the cigarette consumption was considered, female smokers displayed, for example, slightly higher relative death rates from ischaemic heart disease. However, no statistically significant gender differential in relative mortality rates was observed for any of the studied diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Women and men in this Swedish cohort seem equally susceptible to the hazards of smoking, when the gender differential in smoking characteristics is accounted for. Although the cohort under study is large, there were few female smokers in the high consuming categories and the relative risk estimates are therefore accompanied by wide confidence intervals in these categories.