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Coarse particulate matter and hospitalization for respiratory infections in children younger than 15 years in Toronto: a case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173542
Source
Pediatrics. 2005 Aug;116(2):e235-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Mei Lin
David M Stieb
Yue Chen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Pediatrics. 2005 Aug;116(2):e235-40
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Particle Size
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - therapy
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Urban health
Weather
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization for respiratory infections among children who were younger than 15 years in Toronto during a 4-year period (1998-2001).
Exposures averaged during periods that varied from 1 to 7 days were used to assess the effects of air pollutants, including thoracic particulate matter (PM10), fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), on hospitalization for respiratory infections. A case-crossover design was used to calculate odds ratios for the hospitalization adjusted for daily weather conditions with an incremented exposure corresponding to the interquartile range in air pollution exposures.
When particulate matter and gaseous pollutants were mutually taken into account, the effect remained pronounced for PM10-2.5 in both boys and girls. The adjusted odds ratio for 6-day average exposure to PM10-2.5 with an increment of 6.5 microg/m3 was 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.30) for boys and 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.36) for girls. The effect also remained for PM10 in boys and for NO2 in girls. PM2.5, CO, SO2, and O3 showed no significant effects on hospitalization for respiratory infection in both genders when other pollutants were taken into consideration.
Our study suggested a detrimental effect of relatively low levels of ambient particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, especially coarse particulate matter and NO2, on hospitalization for respiratory infections in children.
PubMed ID
16061576 View in PubMed
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The duration of acute respiratory tract infections in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37949
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1989 Dec;7(4):219-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1989
Author
P. Gulbrandsen
P. Fugelli
G. Kvarstein
L. Moland
Author Affiliation
Institute of General Practice, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1989 Dec;7(4):219-23
Date
Dec-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Family Practice
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - therapy
Time Factors
Abstract
In a rural district in Western Norway with 400 children under 16 years, we recorded all children with acute respiratory infections who attended their general practitioner during a period of four months. 90 cases were recorded, giving an incidence of 5.6% per month. Half of the patients contacted the doctor within four days from the initial symptom, every sixth waited more than two weeks. Their symptoms were monitored by the parents. Low fever, nasal discharge and cough were the most long-standing symptoms. After three weeks less than 50% of the patients were completely recovered. The children under one year of age recovered more quickly than the rest. No serious complications or sequelae were recorded.
PubMed ID
2626611 View in PubMed
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[Morbidity study of acute respiratory diseases to assess the indications for ambulatory care at a student polyclinic].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236524
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1986 Oct;(10):36-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1986
Author
D M Zlydnikov
O I Kubar'
V I Rechkin
T B Trantseeva
N G Fadeeva
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1986 Oct;(10):36-9
Date
Oct-1986
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Ambulatory Care
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - therapy
Periodicity
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - therapy
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Student Health Services
Abstract
The methods of the retrospective epidemiological analysis of morbidity rate among students attending a specialized polyclinic for students have made it possible to establish the fact that acute respiratory diseases of non-influenza etiology are of the greatest socio-economic importance for students living under the conditions of a hostel. Such importance of these infections is linked with the autonomous character of the epidemic process due to the "mixing" factor, the intensive realization of the drop mechanism of infection transfer, and high morbidity risk in the absence of immunoprophylactic remedies. The results of this study indicate that the student body may be considered a group of primary necessity for prophylactic medical examination aimed at the early detection of the consequences of the past disease and at the organization of timely and effective treatment of young people.
PubMed ID
2948347 View in PubMed
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Population-based study of the impact of childcare attendance on hospitalizations for acute respiratory infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80424
Source
Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1439-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Kamper-Jørgensen Mads
Wohlfahrt Jan
Simonsen Jacob
Grønbaek Morten
Benn Christine Stabell
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. mka@ssi.dk
Source
Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1439-46
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Factors
Child Day Care Centers - utilization
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Relations
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - therapy
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that children attending childcare have a higher risk of acute respiratory infections compared with children in home care; however, knowledge is sparse regarding how the excess risk of acute respiratory infection varies with age, time since enrollment, and other factors. METHODS: A national register-based study of 138,821 inpatient admissions to hospital for acute respiratory infection during 3,982,925 person-years of follow-up in Danish children aged 0 to 5 years. Data on child and family characteristics, childcare attendance, and hospitalizations were obtained from Danish registries. The outcome of the study was inpatient admissions to hospital for acute respiratory infection. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: In children or = 3 years were 47%, 41%, and 8%, respectively. The incidence decreased after the first 6 months, and after > or = 1 year in childcare the incidence was comparable with that of children in home care. Similar patterns were seen after second enrollment. For 0- to 2-year-old children living in households with no additional children or = 2 additional children, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of acute respiratory infection was most pronounced among 0- to 2-year-old children living with no other children during the first 6 months of enrollment. Our findings may suggest that it would be optimal to postpone enrollment into childcare until after 1 year of age.
PubMed ID
17015534 View in PubMed
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Users of homeopaths in Norway in 1998, compared to previous users and GP patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31112
Source
Homeopathy. 2003 Jan;92(1):3-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
A. Steinsbekk
V. Fønnebø
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. aslak.steinsbekk@medisin.ntnu.no
Source
Homeopathy. 2003 Jan;92(1):3-10
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude to Health
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Family Practice - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Homeopathy - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Patient satisfaction
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - therapy
Skin Diseases - epidemiology - therapy
Abstract
AIM: Homeopathy is the form of complementary medicine most frequently used in Norway. This study describes complaints and characteristics of patients who visited Norwegian homeopaths in 1998, comparing them with those who visited homeopaths in 1985 and general practice patients. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 1097 patients visiting 80 Norwegian homeopaths in 1998 and compared them with a similar survey in 1985 (1072 consultations) and a 1989 survey of general practice patients (90,458 consultations). RESULTS: One in four of patients visiting homeopaths in 1998 were children between 0 and 9 years of age, compared to one in ten in 1985 and in general practice. Almost half of the patients in 1998 had used prescription drugs provided by a medical doctor the previous month for the same complaints they presented to the homeopath. In 1998 patients sought homeopathy most often because of respiratory and skin complaints. In 1985 the most common reasons were musculo-skeletal and digestive problems. Four of the five commonest reasons for encounter in homeopathic practice in 1998 were also found among the five commonest reasons for general practice consultations. CONCLUSION: Patients currently visiting homeopaths differ in age and to some extent in complaints compared to previous users of homeopathy and general practice patients.
PubMed ID
12587989 View in PubMed
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