Respiratory tract infections and pyodermia are typical for personnel doing military service under conscription. Risk of progression of these infections is connected with activation of carry-over of causative agents among military personnel during replacement and decrease in immunity of conscripts. Usage of medication "Karmolis Kapli" for the purpose of prophylaxis allows to reduce cases of respiratory tract infections among the military personnel. Among the military servicemen who had take "Karmolis Kapli" was noted reduction of community-acquired pneumonia, tonsillitis and pyodermia morbidity. Non-specific protective effect of medication "Karmolis Kapli" is conditioned by increase of the common resistance of the body. For the purpose of prophylaxis it is necessary to use this medication during the personnel formation before the beginning of seasonal morbidity.
The in-vitro activity of telithromycin and comparator antibacterial agents was determined against clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila collected in the PROTEKT surveillance study. In total, 133 isolates were collected between 1999 and 2004 from 13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the USA). MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Telithromycin maintained activity between Year 1 (MIC(90) 0.015 mg/L) and Year 5 (MIC(90) 0.03 mg/L), as did the comparator antibacterial agents. Telithromycin appears to be a candidate for coverage of legionellosis in the empirical treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infection.
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
In spite of methodological problems it has been concluded that Norwegian health statistics on acute morbidity in the late 19th century reflect genuine nation-wide health differences, a fact which calls for studies on living conditions in the areas concerned.
Data on morbidity have been extracted from the annual medical reports from seven health districts in Telemark between 1870 and 1900. The incidence of widespread contagious diseases in two selected groups is calculated.
Illness increased in Skien health district throughout the period, while in Kragerø it declined from about 1885. The occurrence of acute gastrointestinal infections was higher in Skien and Kragerø than in the five rural districts. Remotely located rural districts had fewer outbreaks of epidemic diseases than the more central districts.
High occurrence of acute infections appears to have been related to extensive migration and a high level of through traffic. High population density combined with poor sanitary conditions seems to be a main cause of acute gastrointestinal infections. No obvious connections were found between health status and standards of general hygiene, diet and economic boom periods. It has not been possible to document any evident effects of public health work an acute morbidity, a few diseases of minor importance disregarded.
Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants. In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes (median: 5.1, inter-quartile range (IQR): 3.3-7.8) of acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) (nasal discharge and > or = 1 of the following symptoms: cough, fever, wheezing, tachypnea, malaise, or lost appetite) and 5.6 episodes (median: 4.3, IQR: 2.1-7.3) of simple rhinitis per 365 days at risk. Determinants for respiratory symptoms were increasing age, winter season, household size, size of residence, day-care attendance, and having siblings aged 1-3 years attending a day nursery. In conclusion, the present study provides detailed data on the occurrence of disease symptoms during the first year of life in a general population cohort and emphasizes the impact of increasing age, seasonality, and living conditions on the occurrence of ARTI.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in small children account for a considerable proportion of health care expenditure. In 113 children, followed for the first three years of life, we studied the frequency of acute RTI and its relationship to the factors: type of day-care, age, sex, family size, living conditions, allergic predisposition, family smoking habits, and season. To elucidate the influence of age, the frequency of acute RTI and its relationship to type of day-care was longitudinally studied on a quarterly basis. The frequency of acute RTI diagnosis increased gradually from birth culminating in a peak at the beginning of the second year. Besides age and season, type of day-care was the only factor studied to show any relationship with the frequency of acute RTI diagnosis. Up to the age of almost 2 1/2 years, children attending day-care centres accounted for more RTI diagnoses than did those in home care or family day-care, categories with comparable frequencies.
Study prevalence of adenovirus species and serotypes that had caused acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) in Moscow in 2004 - 2014.
Material from respiratory tract of 4731 patients with ARVI and 663 conditionally healthy children and adults was used. ARVI causative agents were detected by PCR with real-time detection using AmpliSens reagent kits (CRIE, Moscow). Membership of adenoviruses to a certain serotype was determined by sequencing of hexon gene segment. Adenoviruses that had caused ARD in servicemen in 2010 - 2014 were also studied.
ARVI causative agents were detected in 64.6% ill children and 58% of adults. Respiratory-syncytial and rhinoviruses prevailed in children, influenza A virus--in adults. Adenoviruses were detected in 6.9% of ill children and 2.9% of adults during the whole year, with a rise in October-December. B and C species occurred at an equal frequency, E species was found less often. Serotypes 3 and 2 prevailed in 34% and 21% of cases of adenovirus mono-infection, respectively, serotypes 7, 6 and 4 occurred less often. 4 out of 5 outbreaks of adenovirus infection in servicemen were caused by serotype 7. Adenoviruses were absent in the group of healthy adults, in conditionally healthy children were detected in 0.4% of cases and were attributed to serotypes 1 and 2.
Etiological structure of ARVI was studied for the last decade. Adenovirus infection ranked 5th in children and 7th in adults. 9 serotypes of 3 species of respiratory adenoviruses were identified. Varying prevalence of species and serotypes depending in season, clinical diagnosis and patient age was demonstrated.
The Nordic countries have published joint dietary recommendations, the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), since 1980. We evaluated adherence to the NNR as a measure of a healthy diet and its potential association with self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).
A prospective, population-based study with a follow-up period of 4 months. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ with ninety-six items, along with other lifestyle factors, at baseline. URTI was assessed every three weeks. A Poisson regression model was used to control for age, sex and other confounding factors.
A middle-sized county in northern Sweden.
Swedish men and women (n 1509) aged 20-60 years.
The NNR include recommendations on macronutrient proportions, physical activity and intake of micronutrients, sodium, fibre and alcohol. We found that overall adherence to the NNR was moderately good. In addition, we found that high adherence to the NNR (>5·5 adherence points) was not associated with a lower risk of URTI (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·89, 95% CI 0·73, 1·08) compared with low adherence (
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a newly recognized common cause of respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to examine its prevalence in Iceland. The study was based on 1020 serum samples from individuals 0-99 years old. The samples were divided into 10-year age groups. IgG and IgM antibodies were determined with microimmunofluorescence assay. An IgG titer > or = 32 and IgM titer > or = 16 were considered positive. The prevalence of positive IgG titer in the study population was 53 +/- 16% (mean +/- SD, age group range 14-66%). Neither seasonal nor gender-based difference in IgG antibody prevalence was demonstrated. It was lowest in the youngest group, 0-9 years old (p