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Adverse effects of amantadine and oseltamivir used during respiratory outbreaks in a center for developmentally disabled adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177196
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Nov;25(11):955-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004
Author
Allison J McGeer
Wayne Lee
Mark Loeb
Andrew E Simor
Margaret McArthur
Karen Green
Jonathan Hayfron Benjamin
Charles Gardner
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Nov;25(11):955-61
Date
Nov-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetamides - adverse effects
Adult
Aged
Amantadine - adverse effects
Antiviral Agents - adverse effects
Child
Comorbidity
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - chemically induced
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control - methods - statistics & numerical data
Long-Term Care - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Ontario - epidemiology
Oseltamivir
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Antiviral prophylaxis is recommended for the control of institutional influenza A outbreaks. In long-term-care institutions other than nursing homes, neither the seriousness of influenza nor the risks and benefits of antiviral prophylaxis is clearly understood. We studied the severity of illness due to influenza among adults residing in a center for the developmentally disabled and assessed adverse reactions to amantadine and oseltamivir prophylaxis.
Data were collected from the charts of consenting residents. Complications of upper respiratory tract illness were recorded. Potential adverse events were documented during amantadine and oseltamivir therapy, and during a baseline period with neither medication.
The median age of the 287 participants was 46.4 years. Only 15 (5%) were older than 65 years, and 69 (24%) had chronic underlying medical illness placing them at high risk for influenza. Of the 122 residents with an upper respiratory tract infection, 16 (13%) developed pneumonia, 12 (9.8%) were hospitalized, and 5 (4%) died. Twenty-eight (25%) of 112 residents had an adverse neurologic event while receiving amantadine prophylaxis, compared with 3 (2.7%) receiving no antiviral medication and 5 (4.5%) receiving oseltamivir (P
PubMed ID
15566030 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic consumption in relation to socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and accessibility of primary health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262680
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;46(12):888-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Anders Ternhag
Maria Grünewald
Pontus Nauclér
Karin Tegmark Wisell
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;46(12):888-96
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Demography
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in antibiotic consumption between individuals are not only due to differences in primary infection morbidity, other non-medical factors are important. Our objective was to investigate how socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and access to primary care affect antibiotic prescribing.
The study population included all 2 078 481 persons in Sweden who received at least one antibiotic prescription during 2010, and an unmatched control population of 788 580 individuals. We used record linkage to obtain data on co-morbidity, various socio-demographic variables, and waiting times for doctor appointments in primary care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for antibiotic prescription.
The results showed that over 20% of the population were prescribed antibiotics during 2010. Children aged 0-5 years, persons = 75 years of age, those living in urban areas, and women compared with men, received many prescriptions. Co-morbidity was a strong factor that determined the number of antibiotic prescriptions: those with Charlson's index = 3 had an OR of 3.03 (95% CI: 3.00-3.07) to obtain antibiotics in the adjusted analysis, compared with individuals without co-morbidity (Charlson's index 0). Short waiting times for a doctor's visit in primary care were associated with a higher number of antibiotic prescriptions. Individuals born in Sweden were prescribed more antibiotics compared with those born in another country. Specifically, persons born in any of the 27 EU countries (excluding Scandinavia) had an OR of antibiotic prescription of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.77-0.78) compared with native-born individuals.
We conclude that non-medical factors strongly influence antibiotic prescriptions.
PubMed ID
25268280 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Implications for medical practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204156
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1998 Sep;44:1881-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
E E Wang
J D Kellner
S. Arnold
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto.
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1998 Sep;44:1881-8
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Utilization
Evidence-Based Medicine
Guideline Adherence
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Parents - psychology
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Pneumococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Prevalence
Research Design
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Risk factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
To review the definition and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, its links with antibiotic prescribing, data on antibiotic prescribing and prescribing appropriateness, and evidence-based treatment guidelines for common respiratory tract syndromes.
Primary studies consist of cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies. Treatment guidelines are based on clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cohort studies. Study designs were appropriate for the specific study questions.
The increasing prevalence of penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae is concurrent with increasing antibiotic prescribing. Individual patients show a twofold to ninefold increase in nasopharyngeal carriage of resistant bacteria or invasion with resistant bacteria (among those who have received antibiotics in the preceding 3 months). Cross-sectional data as well as data from medicaid and drug databases attest to overprescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections. Physician surveys and focus groups blame this on parental pressure for antibiotic prescriptions. However, parents in focus groups and surveys deny they pressure their physicians and indicate their main purpose for office visits is to obtain a diagnosis and to seek reassurance that their children are not seriously ill. Evidence-based guidelines suggest treatment strategies that would reduce antibiotic prescribing.
The few antibiotics that can be used with resistant organisms are expensive and are increasingly being needed. To control the rise of antibiotic resistance, it is important to limit antibiotic overprescribing.
Notes
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Comment In: Can Fam Physician. 1998 Sep;44:1769-73, 1780-49789653
Comment In: Can Fam Physician. 1998 Nov;44:2375-69839048
PubMed ID
9789668 View in PubMed
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Antibiotics in fetal and early life and subsequent childhood asthma: nationwide population based study with sibling analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260761
Source
BMJ. 2014;349:g6979
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Anne K Örtqvist
Cecilia Lundholm
Helle Kieler
Jonas F Ludvigsson
Tove Fall
Weimin Ye
Catarina Almqvist
Source
BMJ. 2014;349:g6979
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - drug therapy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Siblings
Skin Diseases, Bacterial - drug therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urinary Tract Infections - drug therapy
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the association between exposure to antibiotics in fetal and early life and asthma in childhood, with adjustment for confounding factors.
Nationwide prospective population based cohort study, including sibling control design.
Swedish population identified from national demographic and health registers.
493,785 children born 2006-10; 180,894 of these were eligible for sibling analyses.
Asthma defined as having both an asthma diagnosis and dispensed asthma drugs. The association between antibiotic exposure and asthma was investigated in the whole cohort with Cox proportional hazard regression. A stratified proportional hazards model conditional on sibling group was used to adjust for shared factors within families. Confounding by respiratory infections was assessed by investigating whether specific groups of antibiotics were associated with asthma.
Antibiotic exposure in fetal life was associated with an increased risk of asthma in cohort analyses (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 1.32), but not in sibling analyses (0.99, 0.92 to 1.07). In cohort analyses, antibiotics used to treat respiratory infections in childhood were associated with a more pronounced increased risk of asthma (4.12, 3.78 to 4.50) than antibiotics used for urinary tract and skin infections (1.54, 1.24 to 1.92). In sibling analyses, the excess risks after exposure to antibiotics for respiratory infections decreased (2.36, 1.78 to 3.13) and disappeared for antibiotics for urinary tract and skin (0.85, 0.47 to 1.55).
Previous positive associations between exposure to antibiotics in fetal and early life and subsequent childhood asthma could have been caused by confounding by shared familial factors, in addition to confounding by respiratory infections.
Notes
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Erratum In: BMJ. 2014;349:g7395
PubMed ID
25432937 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic susceptibility of upper respiratory tract pathogens in Sweden: a seven year follow-up study including loracarbef. Swedish Respiratory Tract Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224955
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(4):485-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
B. Olsson-Liljequist
L G Burman
I. Kallings
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(4):485-93
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cephalosporins - pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Follow-Up Studies
Haemophilus influenzae - drug effects
Humans
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis - drug effects
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects
Streptococcus pyogenes - drug effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated in five different geographical areas of Sweden in 1990 and compared with results from similar investigations performed in 1983 and 1986. Tests on 100 isolates per species and laboratory were performed by the disk diffusion method, and 10% of the strains plus all resistant ones were sent to the central laboratory for determination of MICs of ampicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, cefaclor, loracarbef, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Beta-lactamase production was found in 7% of H. influenzae and 71% of M. catarrhalis, and reduced susceptibility to penicillin in 3% of S. pneumoniae. Low frequencies (1-3%) of tetracycline resistance were found in H. influenzae and in the 2 streptococcal species, in which also less than 1% of the strains were resistant to erythromycin. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole occurred in 7% (range 3-14%) of H. influenzae and in 3% of S. pneumoniae. Cefaclor was active against all streptococci except against S. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. It was active against beta-lactamase negative strains of M. catarrhalis but had, according to the SIR-system, intermediate activity against H. influenzae. Loracarbef was twice as active as cefaclor against H. influenzae but equally active against the 3 other species tested.
PubMed ID
1411315 View in PubMed
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Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice: Comparison between Denmark and Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276312
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2015;33(4):269-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Nanna Rún Sigurðardóttir
Anni Brit Sternhagen Nielsen
Anders Munck
Lars Bjerrum
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2015;33(4):269-74
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Clinical Audit
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Family Practice - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Inappropriate Prescribing - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Practice Patterns, Physicians' - standards - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland.
A cross-sectional study.
General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 78) and Iceland (n = 21) registered all patients with URTI according to the Audit Project Odense (APO) method during a three-week period in the winter months of 2008 and 2009.
Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in patients with URTI in Denmark and Iceland.
A total of 1428 patients were registered (Denmark: n = 1208; Iceland: n = 220). A majority of patients in both countries were prescribed antibiotics, and only a minority of the prescriptions could be classified as appropriate prescribing. In general, Icelandic GPs more often prescribed antibiotics (Iceland = 75.8% vs. Denmark = 59.3%), but Danish GPs had a higher percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for sinusitis, and Icelandic GPs for pharyngotonsillitis. No differences were found for acute otitis media (AOM). The different antibiotic prescribing patterns between Denmark and Iceland could not fully be explained by different symptoms and signs among patients.
Icelandic GPs have a higher antibiotic prescribing rate compared with Danish GPs, but the percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is highest in Denmark for sinusitis, and in Iceland for pharyngotonsillitis. Key points Within the Nordic countries there are marked differences in antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use. Iceland differs from Denmark by a higher antibiotic prescribing rate and a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care and most often for upper respiratory infections (URTIs). Only a minor amount of antibiotic prescriptions for URTIs can be classified as appropriate; inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is higher in Denmark than in Iceland for sinusitis and the opposite for pharyngotonsillitis. The different antibiotic prescribing patterns between Denmark and Iceland cannot be fully explained by different clinical criteria among patients.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26683287 View in PubMed
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[Body immunocorrection when vaccination is contraindicated (a clinico-epidemiological validation)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223369
Source
Voen Med Zh. 1992 Aug;(8):31-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1992
Author
S M Furgal
A A Degtiarev
A M Zemskov
Source
Voen Med Zh. 1992 Aug;(8):31-4
Date
Aug-1992
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adjuvants, Immunologic - administration & dosage
Drug Evaluation
Humans
Influenza A virus - immunology
Influenza Vaccines - contraindications - immunology
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Nucleic Acids - administration & dosage
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - immunology
Russia - epidemiology
Vaccines, Inactivated - immunology
Abstract
The article summarizes the results of epidemiological observation which was performed in one of the training units. The goals of this observation were to estimate the prophylactic efficiency of the selected application of Natrii nucleinas in persons with the lowered immunoresistance on the background of antigrip immunization. A high clinico-epidemiological effectiveness ws approved for 10-days administration of the Natrii nucleinas in persons with clinic manifestations of grip and other respiratory infections at the moment of vaccination. It is resulted in the diminishing of the morbidity index, duration and gravity of this pathology in the postvaccinal period. The administration of Natrii nucleinas was experimentally substantiated during this epidemiological observation.
PubMed ID
1441268 View in PubMed
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Broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282415
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2017 Mar;137(5):362-366
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Øyunn Holen
Torunn Alberg
Hege Salvesen Blix
Ingrid Smith
Marion Iren Neteland
Hanne Merete Eriksen
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2017 Mar;137(5):362-366
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Carbapenems - therapeutic use
Cephalosporins - therapeutic use
Cross Infection - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Utilization Review
Guideline Adherence
Hospitals
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Piperacillin - therapeutic use
Quinolones - therapeutic use
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
BACKGROUND One of the objectives in the action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance in the health services in Norway is to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals. This study describes the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics mentioned in the action plan in Norwegian hospitals, and assesses prescribing practices in relation to the Norwegian guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were analysed from a nationwide non-identifiable point prevalence survey in May 2016 where all systemic use of antibiotics was recorded.RESULTS Broad-spectrum antibiotics accounted for 33 % of all antibiotics prescribed. Altogether 84 % of all broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed as treatment, 8 % were for prophylactic use, and 8 % were classified as other/unknown. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most frequent indication for treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, involving 30 % of all broad-spectrum treatment.INTERPRETATION This point prevalence survey in Norwegian hospitals in spring 2016 indicates a possibility for reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and for prophylactic use. Reduction of healthcare-associated infections may also contribute.
PubMed ID
28272566 View in PubMed
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Children with recurrent respiratory tract infections tend to belong to families with health problems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37125
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991 Jun-Jul;80(6-7):696-703
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Söderström
B. Hovelius
K. Prellner
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Dalby, Sweden.
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991 Jun-Jul;80(6-7):696-703
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Family Health
Humans
Prevalence
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Children (7-11 years of age) who had recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTI) treated with antibiotics as preschoolers (n = 41), and their families were compared with regard to medical and social factors to families with children of comparable age who had had no such infections as preschoolers, or only isolated episodes (controls; n = 29). All the children studied had attended day-care centres as preschoolers. The two groups of children did not differ with regard to socio-economic conditions or age at admission to day-care centres. There was a difference in the two groups with regard to signs noted at physical examination (p less than 0.05), eardrum changes being observed in 34% of the children with recurrent episodes of RTI as preschoolers and in none of the controls (p less than 0.001). Questionnaires answered by parents indicated diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, to be significantly more frequent in the families of the children with recurrent RTIs as preschoolers than in those of the controls (p less than 0.01). Parents of the controls were more often satisfied with their own health (p less than 0.05) and reported fewer symptoms of minor illness (p less than 0.05), as compared with parents of the children with recurrent RTIs as preschoolers. Thus, the results of the present study support the idea that children with recurrent bacterial RTIs as preschoolers tend to belong to families with health problems.
PubMed ID
1867089 View in PubMed
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36 records – page 1 of 4.