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Achieving a 25% reduction in premature non-communicable disease mortality: the Swedish population as a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265383
Source
BMC Med. 2015;13:65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ailiana Santosa
Joacim Rocklöv
Ulf Högberg
Peter Byass
Source
BMC Med. 2015;13:65
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Chronic Disease
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - mortality
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The 2012 World Health Assembly set a target for Member States to reduce premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality by 25% over the period 2010 to 2025. This reflected concerns about increasing NCD mortality burdens among productive adults globally. This article first considers whether the WHO target of a 25% reduction in the unconditional probability of dying between ages of 30 and 70 from NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, or chronic respiratory diseases) has already taken place in Sweden during an equivalent 15-year period. Secondly, it assesses which population sub-groups have been more or less successful in contributing to overall changes in premature NCD mortality in Sweden.
A retrospective dynamic cohort database was constructed from Swedish population registers in the Linnaeus database, covering the entire population in the age range 30 to 69 years for the period 1991 to 2006, which was used directly to measure reductions in premature NCD mortality using a life table method as specified by the WHO. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to assess the contributions of individual background factors to decreases in premature NCD mortality.
A total of 292,320 deaths occurred in the 30 to 69 year age group during the period 1991 to 2006, against 70,768,848 person-years registered. The crude all-cause mortality rate declined from 5.03 to 3.72 per 1,000 person-years, a 26% reduction. Within this, the unconditional probability of dying between the ages of 30 and 70 from NCD causes as defined by the WHO fell by 30.0%. Age was consistently the strongest determinant of NCD mortality. Background determinants of NCD mortality changed significantly over the four time periods 1991-1994, 1995-1998, 1999-2002, and 2003-2006.
Sweden, now at a late stage of epidemiological transition, has already exceeded the 25% premature NCD mortality reduction target during an earlier 15-year period. This should be encouraging news for countries currently implementing premature NCD mortality reduction programmes. Our findings suggest, however, that it may be difficult for Sweden and other late-transition countries to reach the current 25?×?25 target, particularly where substantial premature mortality reductions have already been achieved.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25889300 View in PubMed
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[Analysis of cause of death of workers of non-ferrous metal industry in the Far North]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4027
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1997;(5):18-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
L V Talykova
G P Artiunina
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1997;(5):18-21
Date
1997
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Cold Climate
Comparative Study
Coronary Disease - mortality
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Russia
Sex Factors
Abstract
Mortality parameters among able-bodied individuals engaged into nonferrous metallurgy due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and malignancies several times exceed the analogous parameters among general population residing in the same climate (5.4, 4.9 and 3.6 times respectively). High mortality due to malignancies among the workers exposed to nonferrous metals does not match the data by official statistics declaring the occupational malignancies rate over 400 times lower than the mortality parameter. Such gap between actual and official statistics could result from inadequate occupational medical service for these workers.
PubMed ID
9235212 View in PubMed
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[Analysis of deaths during hospitalization and after discharge from hospital]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92241
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Aug 18;170(34):2571-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-18-2008
Author
Bommersholdt Martin E
Sørensen Henrik Ancher
Andersen Teis
Author Affiliation
Roskilde Sygehus, Sygehusadministrationen, Kvalitetsenheden, Sygehus Nord, Roskilde. mebo@regionsjaelland.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Aug 18;170(34):2571-5
Date
Aug-18-2008
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Incidence
Infection - mortality
Length of Stay
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Patient Discharge
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Analysis of deaths during and up to one month after discharge from hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 2006, all deaths during and up to one month after discharge were identified for patients admitted to hospital in Roskilde or Køge. Age, acute or planned hospitalisation, duration of in-hospital stay, department of discharge and main diagnose were registered. RESULTS: Out of 50,302 hospitalisations, 2.2% had a fatal outcome during hospitalisation, whereas 2.1% died within the following month. During hospitalisation, the proportion of deaths among patients with either planned or acute admission was 1.1% and 2.6%, respectively. For several diagnose groups the risk of death during the first month after discharge was higher than that of fatal outcome during hospitalisation. The diagnose groups most frequently related to fatal outcome were cancers, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. Pneumonia was the most prevalent benign diagnosis for fatal cases during hospitalisation. Data are provided for mortality related to diagnose and age group. The incidence of fatal outcome increased with the length of in-patient stay. CONCLUSION: Analysis of fatality rates also during planned hospitalisations and within the first month after acute as well as planned hospitalisations should be in focus when planning quality improvement projects.
PubMed ID
18761842 View in PubMed
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Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130287
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Janine Wichmann
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen DK-1014, Denmark. jawic@sund.ku.dk
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Humidity
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22016711 View in PubMed
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The association between daily mortality and ambient air particle pollution in Montreal, Quebec. 2. Cause-specific mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194475
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J C Bailar
J. Brook
Y. Bonvalot
R. Tamblyn
R. Singh
M F Valois
R. Vincent
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Coronary Disease - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus - mortality
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Mortality
Quebec - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether variations in concentrations of particulates in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984 to 1993, were associated with daily variations in cause-specific daily mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of various measures of particles and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfate was also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and sulfate from the Sutton station to predict fine particles and sulfate from fine particles for days that were missing. We estimated associations between cause-specific mortality and PM(2.5), PM(10), predicted fine particles and fine sulfate particles, total suspended particles, coefficient of haze, extinction coefficient, and total sulfate measured at the Sutton station. We selected a set of underlying causes of death, as recorded on the death certificates, as the endpoint and then regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on the daily mean levels for the above measures of particulates, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and gaseous pollutants. We found positive and statistically significant associations between the daily measures of ambient particle mass and sulfate mass and the deaths from respiratory diseases and diabetes. The mean percentage change in daily mortality (MPC), evaluated at the interquartile range for pollutants averaged over the day of death and the preceding 2 days, for deaths from respiratory diseases was MPC(COH)=6.90% (95% CI: 3.69-10.21%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)= 9.03% (95% CI: 5.83- 12.33%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.64% (95% CI: 2.46-6.86%). For diabetes, the corresponding estimates were MPC(COH)=7.50% (95% CI: 1.96-13.34%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)=7.59% (95% CI: 2.36-13.09%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.48% (95% CI: 1.08-7.99%). Among individuals older than 65 years at time of death, we found consistent associations across our metrics of particles for neoplasms and coronary artery diseases. Associations with sulfate mass were also found among elderly persons who died of cardiovascular diseases and of lung cancer. These associations were consistent with linear relationships. The associations found for respiratory diseases and for cardiovascular diseases, especially in the elderly, are in line with some of the current hypotheses regarding mechanisms by which ambient particles may increase daily mortality. The positive associations found for cancer and for diabetes may be understood through a general hypothesis proposed by Frank and Tankersley, who suggested that persons in failing health may be at higher risk for external insults through the failure of regulating physiological set points. The association with diabetes may be interpreted in light of recent toxicological findings that inhalation of urban particles in animals increases blood pressure and plasmatic levels of endothelins that enhance vasoconstriction and alter electrophysiology. Further research to confirm these findings and to determine whether they are causal is warranted.
PubMed ID
11386738 View in PubMed
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Autopsy data and their total evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature252752
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975 Jan;23(1):14-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1975
Author
W H Cherry
W F Forbes
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975 Jan;23(1):14-21
Date
Jan-1975
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Aged
Autopsy
Bone and Bones - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Congenital Abnormalities - mortality
Endocrine System Diseases - mortality
Epidemiologic Methods
Gastrointestinal Diseases - mortality
Hematologic Diseases - mortality
Humans
Kidney - analysis
Liver - analysis
Lung - analysis
Male
Metabolic Diseases - mortality
Neoplasms - mortality
Nutrition Disorders - mortality
Ontario
Poisoning - mortality
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Trace Elements - analysis
Abstract
The role of the autopsy is discussed in the study of the etiology of the current major causes of death (cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases) in developed countries. Evidence is accumulating for the importance of environmental factors in the etiology of these diseases. The study of regional differences in occurrence is described as a method of identifying specific factors. Maps are shown of mortality rates for all causes of death in Ontario counties for males aged 65-74 and 95+ during 1964-68. Some of the difficulties in obtaining data in this form, and in their analysis, are indicated. Regional mortality patterns can be interpreted by the use of associations with available regional socioeconomic measures, or by the use of regional data on trace-metal levels in autopsy samples of human lung, rib, vertebra, kidney and liver. The methodology and the difficulties involved in the determination of trace-metal levels in these tissues are discussed, as is the possible relevance of these levels to the study of degenerative diseases. All these considerations emphasize the valuable contributions of autopsy studies.
PubMed ID
1109383 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence and mortality among Finnish asbestos sprayers and in asbestosis and silicosis patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208380
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1997 Jun;31(6):693-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
P. Oksa
E. Pukkala
A. Karjalainen
A. Ojajärvi
M S Huuskonen
Author Affiliation
Tampere Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland. Panu.Oksa@occuphealth.fi
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1997 Jun;31(6):693-8
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Asbestosis - mortality
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - epidemiology - mortality
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Silicosis - mortality
Vascular Diseases - mortality
Abstract
Cohorts of Finnish asbestos sprayers and of asbestosis and silicosis patients were followed for cancer with the aid of the Finnish Cancer Registry in the period 1967-1994. Compared with the cancer incidence of the total Finnish population, asbestos sprayers had an increased risk for total cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 6.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.2-10); lung cancer (SIR 17.95% CI 8.2-31); and mesothelioma (SIR 263, 95% CI 85-614). The SIR of the asbestosis patients was 3.7 (95% CI 2.8-5.0) for all sites, 10 (95% CI 6.9-14) for lung cancer, and 65 (95% CI 13-188) for mesothelioma. The silicosis patients also had significantly high SIR values for all sites (1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1) and lung cancer (2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.5). The values for the SIR and the standardized mortality ratio for all sites and lung cancer were very similar, and therefore it seems that both are reliable indicators of the occurrence of occupational cancer. It was concluded that pneumoconioses patients and asbestos-exposed workers have a markedly elevated risk for cancer. Asbestos-induced occupational cancers are not only diseases of the elderly, since the relative risk is high also for middle-aged people.
PubMed ID
9131223 View in PubMed
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Cardiorespiratory disease mortality among British and Norwegian migrants to the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27554
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Sep;108(3):181-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1978
Author
E. Rogot
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Sep;108(3):181-91
Date
Sep-1978
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Comparative Study
Coronary Disease - mortality
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Great Britain - ethnology
Humans
Lung Diseases - mortality
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - ethnology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Smoking
United States
Abstract
Mortality rates for coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD), and lung cancer for ages 45-74 years were studied for British and Norwegian migrants to the U.S. and for sample of U.S. native-born. The observed order for CHD and lung cancer was as anticipated, with native-born experiencing the highest CHD rate, British migrants the highest lung cancer rate, and, in each instance, Norwegian migrants experiencing the lowest rates. For CNSLD, contrary to national comparisons, the British migrant rates were about equal to the U.S. native-born although Norwegian migrant rates were lowest, as expected. Migrants who were younger than 15 years of age at migration experienced the highest CHD mortality levels, but a decreasing gradient in mortality level with increasing age at migration did not materialize. Due to inherent limitations in the data, results for CNSLD and lung cancer mortality levels with respect to age at migration remain uncertain. Data on cigarette smoking status indicated substantial excess mortality for cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers and occasional smokers for all groups studied.
PubMed ID
707486 View in PubMed
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82 records – page 1 of 9.