We investigated the frequency of allergic disorders, the pattern of allergen sensitization and serum total IgE concentration in a population-based sample of schoolchildren screened on the basis of respiratory symptoms (N = 244). The children were classified on clinical grounds into three groups, asthma (N = 43), other symptoms from lower airways (OSLA; N = 34) and control children (N = 167). The frequency of allergic disorders (allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis or dermatitis) differed significantly between children with asthma (81%), children with OSLA (62%) and in control children (48%) (p
OBJECTIVES: To investigate (a) whether there is a causal link between smoking and low back pain (LBP), (b) whether smoking is uniquely associated with symptoms in the lumbar spine and (c) the role of respiratory problems in the possible link between smoking and LBP. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected through questionnaires in a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the general Danish population, consisting of 1370 men and women aged 30-50 yr, with a response rate of 69%. BACKGROUND: In some epidemiological studies (mostly those of cross-sectional design) smoking has been associated with LBP; this association, however, is not consistently present in all reports. Several theories exist that attempt to explain a possible association between the two; only rarely have these theories been systematically tested. However, cross-sectional data can also be used to obtain answers to questions relating to causes and mechanisms. METHOD: A list of expectations was produced that related to three hypotheses previously forwarded in the epidemiological literature. The fit of the data in the present study was then considered in the light of these expectations. RESULTS: There is evidence in favor of a causal link between smoking and some definitions of LBP. Smoking was not uniquely associated with the lumbar spine. Respiratory symptoms seemed to be positively associated with LBP but only when linked with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of these findings is limited, but it needs to be considered in future research. Abstinence from smoking may, however, be a useful means of primary prevention of certain types of LBP.
In contrast to asthma and rhinitis, few studies among adults investigating the prevalence and risk factors of eczema have been published.
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of eczema among adults in West Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between asthma, rhinitis and eczema.
A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed in 2008 to 30,000 randomly selected subjects in West Sweden aged 16-75 years; 62% responded. The questionnaire included questions about eczema, respiratory symptoms and diseases and their possible determinants. A subgroup of 669 subjects underwent skin prick testing against common airborne allergens.
'Eczema ever' was reported by 40·7% and 'current eczema' by 11·5%. Both conditions were significantly more common among women. The prevalence decreased with increasing age. The coexistence of both asthma and rhinitis with eczema was common. The main risk factors were family history of allergy and asthma. The dominant environmental risk factor was occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes. Smoking increased the risk. Eczema was associated with urbanization, while growing up on a farm was associated with a decreased risk. Added one by one to the multivariate model, asthma, allergic rhinitis and any positive skin prick test were associated with eczema.
Eczema among adults is a common disease with more women than men having and having had eczema. Eczema is associated with other atopic diseases and with airway symptoms. Hereditary factors and exposure to gas, dust and fumes are associated with eczema.
We conducted a case-control study in the greater Toronto area to evaluate potential lung cancer risk factors including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, family history of cancer, indoor air pollution, workplace exposures and history of previous respiratory diseases with special consideration given to never smokers.
445 cases (35% of which were never smokers oversampled by design) between the ages of 20-84 were identified through four major tertiary care hospitals in metropolitan Toronto between 1997 and 2002 and were frequency matched on sex and ethnicity with 425 population controls and 523 hospital controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between exposures and lung cancer risk.
Any previous exposure to occupational exposures (OR total population 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-2.1, OR never smokers 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3), a previous diagnosis of emphysema in the total population (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-11.1) or a first degree family member with a previous cancer diagnosis before age 50 among never smokers (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.2) were associated with increased lung cancer risk.
Occupational exposures and family history of cancer with young onset were important risk factors among never smokers.
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The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of pairwise combinations of 17 long-term conditions. Data were obtained from a national, representative population-based study including 162,283 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. We calculated the prevalence of each long-term condition given the presence of another long-term condition. Compared with the general population, people with angina pectoris had more than twice the odds of having 12 of the 16 other long-term conditions, and inversely, people with cancer, tinnitus, or cataracts did not have notably higher odds for any of the other long-term conditions.
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A total of 1649 children aged 0 to 16 years were examined in the Khvalynsk district of the Saratov region endemic for goiter. Age-specific features of prevalence of goiter and chronic somatic diseases were studied. Goiter was found to form starting from the first years of life, with its morbidity peaks observed at the age of 3, 5, 7, and 12. Disease incidence in children with endemic goiter was found to be higher than in those without thyroid abnormalities.
Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, have high rates of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) early in life. Whether this commonly results in chronic respiratory symptoms later in life is unknown.
A cross-sectional survey of 3- to 5-years-old Inuit children was conducted in all three regions of Nunavut, as part of the "Qanuippitali, what about us, how are we?" survey.
Reported chronic cough and wheezing were common in preschool Inuit children, although reported asthma diagnosed by a healthcare professional was uncommon. The presence of smokers in the home tended to be associated with severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life. Reported wheezing as well as reported bronchitis or pneumonia in the previous 12 months was significantly associated with severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life. Reported wheezing was also strongly associated with reported bronchitis or pneumonia in the past 12 months. The prevalence of chronic moist cough could not be clearly assessed, due to limitations in the questionnaire.
Severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life was associated with ongoing respiratory morbidity in preschool Inuit children, although symptoms appeared to lessen in severity over time.