A population-based study of the impact of palivizumab on confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) hospitalizations over a 7-year period within and between two similar health regions . Clinicians in Calgary implemented palivizumab prophylaxis for high-risk infants during the last four RSV seasons; clinicians in Edmonton did not. The two cities are part of a unified health care system and similar sociodemographics. Infants
The burden of severe human metapneumovirus (HMPV) respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in European children has not been clarified. We assessed HMPV in Norwegian children and compared hospitalization rates for HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children.
We analyzed the burden of RSV illness in a prospective cohort study of children aged =13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness. The parents filled out daily symptom diaries throughout the study.
Of 6001 medically attended respiratory infections, 302 (5%) were caused by RSV. Per 1000 children, the average annual RSV infection incidence rates among children aged
We examined the dosing regimens, compliance, and outcomes of premature infants who received palivizumab within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Infants receiving =1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2011 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons were recruited across 30 sites. Respiratory illness events were captured monthly. Infants =32 completed weeks gestational age (GA) (Group 1) were compared to 33-35 completed weeks GA infants (Group 2) following prophylaxis. In total, 6,654 patients were analyzed (Group 1, n?=?5,183; Group 2, n?=?1,471). The mean GA was 29.9?±?2.9 versus 34.2?±?2.2 weeks for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group differences were significant (all p-values 5 household individuals, birth weight, and enrolment age. Overall, infants received 92.6 % of expected injections. Group 1 received significantly more injections, but a greater proportion of Group 2 received injections within recommended intervals. The hospitalization rates were similar for Groups 1 and 2 for respiratory illness (4.7 % vs. 3.7 %, p?=?0.1) and RSV (1.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p?=?0.3). Neither the time to first respiratory illness [hazard ratio?=?0.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.2, p?=?0.5] nor to first RSV hospitalization (hazard ratio?=?1.3, 95 % CI 0.8-2.2, p?=?0.3) were different. Compliance with RSV prophylaxis is high. Despite the higher number of palivizumab doses in infants =32 completed weeks GA, the two groups' respiratory illness and RSV-positive hospitalization rates were similar.
It is unclarified as to whether viral co-detection and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) genotypes relate to clinical manifestations in children with HMPV and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and if the clinical course and risk factors for severe LRTI differ between HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
We prospectively enrolled hospitalized children aged
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It has been suggested that a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infancy increases the likelihood of development of asthma in childhood. The RSV epidemics have a special 2-yr pattern in Finland and this allows the evaluation of the association of RSV and asthma by epidemiological means. We evaluated whether being 0-6 months of age during an RSV epidemic has an impact on the use of asthma medication later in the childhood. The consumption of asthma medication at the age of 3-16 yr and the number of those entitled to special reimbursement for asthma medication were identified for a total of 637,922 children. These subjects were grouped in cohorts according to whether they had been aged 0-6 months (exposed) or not (unexposed) during an RSV epidemic. The means of the proportions taking asthma medication and of those receiving reimbursement were calculated for each cohort. The means of the proportions in the unexposed vs. exposed cohorts were 20.5% vs. 20.3% for consumption and 4.8% vs. 4.9% for reimbursement. These differences were insignificant. In conclusion exposure to a RSV epidemic in infancy does not increase the consumption of asthma medicines at the population level.
International and national travelling has made the rapid spread of infectious diseases possible. Little information is available on the role of major traffic hubs, such as airports, in the transmission of respiratory infections, including seasonal influenza and a pandemic threat. We investigated the presence of respiratory viruses in the passenger environment of a major airport in order to identify risk points and guide measures to minimize transmission.
Surface and air samples were collected weekly at three different time points during the peak period of seasonal influenza in 2015-16 in Finland. Swabs from surface samples, and air samples were tested by real-time PCR for influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus and coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43).
Nucleic acid of at least one respiratory virus was detected in 9 out of 90 (10%) surface samples, including: a plastic toy dog in the children's playground (2/3 swabs, 67%); hand-carried luggage trays at the security check area (4/8, 50%); the buttons of the payment terminal at the pharmacy (1/2, 50%); the handrails of stairs (1/7, 14%); and the passenger side desk and divider glass at a passport control point (1/3, 33%). Among the 10 respiratory virus findings at various sites, the viruses identified were: rhinovirus (4/10, 40%, from surfaces); coronavirus (3/10, 30%, from surfaces); adenovirus (2/10, 20%, 1 air sample, 1 surface sample); influenza A (1/10, 10%, surface sample).
Detection of pathogen viral nucleic acids indicates respiratory viral surface contamination at multiple sites associated with high touch rates, and suggests a potential risk in the identified airport sites. Of the surfaces tested, plastic security screening trays appeared to pose the highest potential risk, and handling these is almost inevitable for all embarking passengers.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are important respiratory pathogens of small children and adults. The present study aimed to design a sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of hRSV and hMPV in comparison with direct fluorescent assay (DFA) and to determine the incidence of hMPV and hRSV as causative agents of respiratory infections in a Finnish population. For DFA detection of hMPV antigen, four commercial antibodies were evaluated. The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay achieved a sensitivity of 10(3) copies/mL of specimen for hRSV and hMPV type A viruses and 10(4) copies/mL for type B hMPV. The detection rate of the RT-PCR assay was compared with those for DFA detection of hMPV and hRSV in analyses of 350 nasopharyngeal aspirates sent to HUSLAB, Helsinki University Hospital, for routine virus diagnostics during November 2007 to June 2008. Of the samples analyzed, 43 (12.3%) were positive for hRSV by DFA and an additional 13 specimens (3.7%) were positive for hRSV by RT-PCR. Only four samples (1.1 %) were found to be positive for hMPV RNA by RT-PCR, with two of them also positive by DFA. The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay described in the present study can therefore be applied for efficient identification of hMPV and hRSV in clinical specimens and collection of information on the epidemiology and clinical outcome of these viruses.