Recommendations for the dosage of naloxone to reverse opiate depression in neonates were revised by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1989. In order to ascertain the extent to which these new recommendations have been implemented in Norway, we sent questionnaires to the maternity centres by mail. The responses from 60 different centres covered 88% of the total births in Norway in 1991. The dosages of naloxone used varied from 0.01-0.1 mg/kg, and the reported frequency of use in newborns varied between
OBJECTIVE: Bioactive food ingredients influence energy balance by exerting weak thermogenic effects. We studied whether the thermogenic effect of a combination of capsaicin, green tea extract (catechins and caffeine), tyrosine, and calcium was maintained after 7-day treatment and whether local effects in the gastric mucosa were involved in the efficacy. DESIGN: The present study was designed as a 3-way crossover, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention.SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, RVAU, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 19 overweight to obese men (BMI: 28.0+/-2.7 kg/m2) were recruited by advertising locally. INTERVENTION: The subjects took the supplements for a period of 7 days. The supplements were administrated as a simple supplement with the bioactive ingredients, a similar enterocoated version, or placebo. In all, 24-h energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidations, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and heart rate were measured in respiration chambers on the seventh day of each test period.Results:After adjustment for changes in body weight and SPA, 24-h EE was increased by 160 kJ/day (95% CI: 15-305) by the simple preparation as compared to placebo, whereas the enterocoated preparation had no such effect (53 kJ/day, -92 to 198); simple vs enterocoated versions (P=0.09). The simple preparation produced a deficit in 24-h energy balance of 193 kJ/day (49-338, P=0.03). Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were equally increased by the supplements.CONCLUSION: A supplement containing bioactive food ingredients increased daily EE by approximately 200 kJ or 2%, without raising the heart rate or any observed adverse effects. The lack of effect of the enterocoated preparation suggests that a local action of capsaicin in the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for exerting the thermogenic effect.
Section of Anesthesiology and Emergency, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine were evaluated in free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo) immobilized for marking with radiocollars or intraperitoneal radiotransmitters in Norrbotten, Sweden, during early June 2004 and 2005. Twelve juvenile wolverines were captured by hand and injected with 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) medetomidine and 7.5 +/- 2.0 mg/kg ketamine. Twelve adult wolverines were darted from a helicopter or the ground, or captured by hand. Adults received 0.37 +/- 0.06 mg/kg medetomidine and 9.4 +/- 1.4 mg/kg ketamine. Arterial blood samples were collected between 15 min and 30 min and between 45 min and 60 min after drug administration and immediately analyzed for selected hematologic and plasma variables. Hyperthermia was recorded initially in one juvenile wolverine and 11 adults. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and lactate decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pH, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and base excess increased. Adult wolverines darted from a helicopter had a significantly higher rectal temperature, higher glucose and hematocrit values, and a lower heart rate than juveniles captured by hand. Impaired arterial oxygenation was evident in all wolverines. This study provides baseline data on physiologic variables in adult and juvenile wolverines captured with different methods and anesthetized with medetomidine-ketamine.
PURPOSE: To investigate ventilation and gas elimination during the emergence from inhalational anesthesia with controlled normoventilation with either sevoflurane/N2O or sevoflurane alone. METHODS: Twenty-four ASA I-II patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive either 1.3 MAC sevoflurane/N2O (n = 12) or equi-MAC sevoflurane (n = 12) in 30% oxygen (O2). Expired minute ventilation volumes (V(E)), end-tidal (ET) concentrations of O2, carbon dioxide (CO2), sevoflurane and N2O as well as pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2) and CO2 elimination rates (VCO2) were measured. The ET concentrations of sevoflurane and N2O were converted to total MAC values and gas elimination was expressed in terms of MAC reduction. Time to resumption of spontaneous breathing and extubation were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the end of controlled normoventilation and at the beginning of spontaneous breathing. RESULTS: Resumption of spontaneous breathing and extubation were 8 and 13 min less, respectively, in the sevoflurane/N2O than in the sevoflurane group. Spontaneous breathing was resumed in both groups when pH had decreased by 0.07-0.08 and PaCO2 increased by 1.3-1.5 kPa. Depression of V(E) and VCO2 were less, and MAC reduction more rapid in the sevoflurane/N2O than in the sevoflurane group. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory recovery was faster after sevoflurane/N2O than sevoflurane anesthesia. Changes in pH and PaCO2 rather than absolute values were important for resumption of spontaneous breathing after controlled normoventilation. In both groups, the tracheas were extubated at about 0.2 MAC.
We compared anesthetic features, blood parameters, and physiological responses to either medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam using a double-blinded, randomized experimental design during 40 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) either captured by helicopter in Sweden or by culvert trap in Canada. Induction was smooth and predictable with both anesthetic protocols. Induction time, the need for supplemental drugs to sustain anesthesia, and capture-related stress were analyzed using generalized linear models, but anesthetic protocol did not differentially affect these variables. Arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and physiological responses were examined using linear mixed models. We documented acidemia (pH of arterial blood
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Initiation of fingolimod treatment is associated with a transient decrease of heart rate, and atrioventricular (AV) conduction block may occur.
To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of fingolimod treatment in MS patients in Denmark with focus on cardiac and pulmonary side effects at treatment onset.
We analysed data from the first 496 fingolimod-treated Danish patients, observed for at least 3 months. In a subset of 204 patients, we monitored cardiac and pulmonary adverse effects following treatment initiation.
The overall annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.37 (95% CI 0.31-0.44); 0.22 (95% CI 0.03-0.81) in de novo-treated patients, 0.29 (95% CI; 0.23-0.37) in patients switching from IFN-beta or GA and 0.46 (9 5% CI 0.34-0.60) after natalizumab. In the subset of 204 patients, 8 (3.9%) required prolonged cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and/or second-degree AV block type I. All patients recovered spontaneously. Two patients discontinued fingolimod. Eleven (5.4%) patients reported respiratory complaints and two of these patients discontinued treatment.
Fingolimod appears to be safe and effective in MS patients in a clinical setting. Mild cardiac adverse effects occurred at a similar rate as in clinical trials.