The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p = 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p
To analyse correlates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use in the general male population.
A national household survey.
Individuals aged 15-64 years in Sweden.
AAS use and potential correlates of AAS use, including demographic data, financial situation, physical training, and substance use. In hierarchical logistic regression analyses, lifetime users of AAS (n = 240) were compared to all nonusers (n = 13,920) and to nonusers who reported that they had been offered AAS (n = 487).
AAS use was most strongly associated with a lifetime history of illicit drug use and the misuse of prescription drugs. When controlling for substance use, AAS was associated with physical training and lower education. Illicit drug use and misuse of prescription drugs separated AAS users from nonusers who had been offered AAS. No associations were seen with AUDIT scores for risk alcohol drinking.
In this general population survey in men, lifetime use of AAS appears to share common characteristics with illicit substance use. Both substance use variables and physical training remained associated with AAS use when controlling for one another.
The objective of the present study was to examine anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary factors associated with dropout in a 6-month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing body weight by 10 %. The study sample included 137 sedentary, overweight and obese postmenopausal women, participating in a weight loss intervention that consisted of either energy restriction (ER) or ER with resistance training (ER+RT). Anthropometric (BMI, percent lean body mass, percent fat mass, visceral adipose tissue and waist circumference), metabolic (total energy expenditure, RMR, insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin), psychosocial (body esteem, self-esteem, stress, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, quality of life, self-efficacy, perceived benefits for controlling weight and perceived risk) and dietary (3-d food record) variables were measured. Thirty subjects out of 137 dropped out of the weight loss programme (22 %), with no significant differences in dropout rates between those in the ER and the ER+RT groups. Overall, amount of weight loss was significantly lower in dropouts than in completers ( - 1.7 (sd 3.5) v. - 5.6 (sd 4.3) kg, P
Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE) on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.
Single-limb knee extension exercises have been found to be effective at improving lower extremity exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the positive local physiological effects of exercise training only occur in the engaged muscle(s), should upper extremity muscles also be included to determine the effect of single limb exercises in COPD patients.
a prospective, assessor-blind, block randomized controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial.
stage II-IV COPD patients, > 40?years of age, ex-smokers, with stable medical treatment will be included starting May 2011. Recruitment at three locations in Sweden.
1) high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE) training with elastic bands, 60 minutes, three times/week for 8?weeks combined with four sessions of 60 minutes patient education, or 2) the same patient education alone.
Primary: determine the effects of HRSLE on local muscle endurance capacity (measured as meters walked during 6-minute walk test and rings moved on 6-minute ring and pegboard test) and quality of life (measured as change on the Swedish version of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire). Secondary: effects on maximal strength, muscular endurance, dyspnea, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression. The relationship between changes in health-related variables and changes in exercise capacity, sex-related differences in training effects, feasibility of the program, strategies to determine adequate starting resistance and provide accurate resistance for each involved movement and the relationship between muscle fatigue and dyspnea in the different exercise tests will also be analyzed. Randomization: performed by a person independent of the recruitment process and using a computer random number generator. Stratification by center and gender with a 1:1 allocation to the intervention or control using random block sizes. Blinding: all outcome assessors will be blinded to group assignment.
The results of this project will contribute to increase the body of knowledge regarding COPD and HRSLE.
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994 Oct;150(4):956-617921469
Cites: Lancet. 1994 Nov 19;344(8934):1394-77968075
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers.
Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league.
Two hundred forty-four players.
Two written questionnaires.
Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season.
The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P
Hypertrophic resistance exercise (HRE) induces central and peripheral fatigue. However, more detailed information about changes in corticospinal excitability remains to be elucidated.
Eleven volunteers participated in the upper arm HRE which included one repetition maximum (1 RM) control contractions and three sets of 13 RM (SET1-3). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) at the end of each set and during control contractions to study changes in corticospinal excitability. Electrical stimulation was used in order to measure peripheral changes.
MVC decreased after each set when compared to control contractions. Motor evoked potential (MEP) were 138.7 ± 52.7 % (p
Research Centre on Aging-Health and Social Services Centre, Sherbrooke University Institute of Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.
The aim of this study was to determine if objective and self-reported measures of physical capacity are two equivalent methods to detect changes following an intervention in obese older women. 36 obese women aged between 55 and 75 years participated in a 3-month study with the aim of improving physical capacity by caloric restriction and/or resistance training. Physical capacity was measured objectively with 10 different tests and self-reported with the SF-36 physical functioning score (SF-36 PF score). Then the performance-to-objective tests were computed using quartiles to provide a baseline global physical capacity score. The mean percentage of change of the 10 tests as well as the SF-36 PF score were also calculated after the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray (DXA) absorptiometry. The baseline global physical capacity score and the SF-36 PF score were significantly correlated at baseline (r = 0.43; P
previously, a randomised controlled exercise intervention study (RCT) showed that combined resistance and balance-jumping training (COMB) improved physical functioning and bone strength. The purpose of this follow-up study was to assess whether this exercise intervention had long-lasting effects in reducing injurious falls and fractures.
five-year health-care register-based follow-up study after a 1-year, four-arm RCT.
community-dwelling older women in Finland.
one hundred and forty-five of the original 149 RCT participants; women aged 70-78 years at the beginning.
participants' health-care visits were collected from computerised patient register. An injurious fall was defined as an event in which the subject contacted the health-care professionals or was taken to a hospital, due to a fall. The rate of injured fallers was assessed by Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, HR), and the rate of injurious falls and fractures by Poisson regression (risk ratio, RR).
eighty-one injurious falls including 26 fractures occurred during the follow-up. The rate of injured fallers was 62% lower in COMB group compared with the controls (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.85). In addition, COMB group had 51% less injurious falls (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98) and 74% less fractures (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.97).
home-dwelling older women who participated in a 12-month intensive multi-component exercise training showed a reduced incidence for injurious falls during 5-year post-intervention period. Reduction in fractures was also evident. These long-term effects need to be confirmed in future studies.
The purpose was to compare male and female police students exercise and physical performances at the beginning and the end of a 3-year police education. Two hundred thirty-five subjects answered the survey about exercise and 85 subjects (58 men: age = 23.7 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 82.1 ± 7.8 kg, height = 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 27 women: age = 24.9 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 66 ± 8.5 kg, height = 1.70 ± 0.09 m) participated in the 4 physical exercises (bench press, pull-ups, standing long jump, and 3,000-m run). It was found that the priority of maximum strength training increased (p