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Adolescents with and without a facial difference: The role of friendships and social acceptance in perceptions of appearance and emotional resilience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142923
Source
Body Image. 2010 Sep;7(4):271-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Kristin Billaud Feragen
Ingela L Kvalem
Nichola Rumsey
Anne I H Borge
Author Affiliation
Bredtvet Resource Center, Oslo, Norway. kristin.feragen@statped.no
Source
Body Image. 2010 Sep;7(4):271-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Image
Cleft Lip - psychology
Cleft Palate - psychology
Depression - diagnosis - psychology
Emotions
Female
Friends - psychology
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Resilience, Psychological
Sex Factors
Social Adjustment
Abstract
This study investigated the role of friendships and social acceptance in self-perceptions of appearance and depressive symptoms, comparing adolescents with and without a facial difference. Adolescents with a visible cleft (n=196) were compared with adolescents with a non-visible cleft (n=93), and with a comparison group (n=1832). Boys with a visible difference reported significantly more positive perceptions of friendships and less depressive symptoms than the comparison group. These results were interpreted in the context of indicators of emotional resilience. The objective measure of facial difference did not explain levels of depressive symptoms, while subjective measures did. Subjective ratings of appearance mediated the association between social acceptance and depressive symptoms in all samples. Gender did not contribute in explaining the paths between friendships, appearance, and depressive symptoms. The associations between perceptions of social acceptance, appearance, and emotional distress, support the possible utility of strengthening social experiences in preventing and treating appearance-concerns.
PubMed ID
20541483 View in PubMed
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Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256512
Source
J Couns Psychol. 2014 Jan;61(1):93-109
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
David M Dunkley
Denise Ma
Ihno A Lee
Kristopher J Preacher
David C Zuroff
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Lady Davis Institute-Jewish General Hospital.
Source
J Couns Psychol. 2014 Jan;61(1):93-109
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Affect
Concept Formation
Defense Mechanisms
Female
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Problem Solving
Psychometrics
Psychotherapy
Quebec
Questionnaires
Resilience, Psychological
Self Efficacy
Social Support
Abstract
The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience.
Notes
Erratum In: J Couns Psychol. 2014 Apr;61(2):263
PubMed ID
24447060 View in PubMed
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After the flood: resilience among tsunami-afflicted adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115992
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;68(1):38-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Mats Uttervall
Christina M Hultman
Hedvig Ekerwald
Anna Lindam
Tom Lundin
Author Affiliation
Mats Uttervall, M.Sc., Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet , PO Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm , Sweden.
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;68(1):38-43
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Asia - epidemiology
Child
Family Relations
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Life Change Events
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Resilience, Psychological
Sex Factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - ethnology - psychology
Sweden - ethnology
Tsunamis
Abstract
About 7000 Swedish citizens were on Christmas holiday in the disaster area at the time of the South-east Asian tsunami in 2004, in many cases with children and adolescents in their families.
To investigate how adolescents experience a traumatic exposure to a natural disaster.
Twenty adolescents aged 16-19 years, who had experienced the 2004 tsunami and participated in a follow-up study 19 months post-disaster, were randomly selected and interviewed about their reactions, their life afterwards and their families. The study combines the face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with questionnaire data on mental health for 4910 Swedish adolescents and adults.
The themes that emerged inductively during the analysis of the interviews were psychological reactions during the catastrophe, the coping after, changes in self-image, worldview, role in the family, risk interpretation and altruism. The disaster had profound impact on family relations, social networks and plans for the future. Many felt strengthened by the experience and by their ability to cope in comparison with other family members, but also perceived isolation and lack of understanding. The general mental health status among the adolescents did not differ significantly from those of older age at the 19-month follow-up.
According to the adolescents', they experienced the tsunami-disaster differently than others around them. Their subjective interpretation of the event and its aftermath indicates resilience, especially among the young men. Future follow-up studies in larger samples of both symptoms and psychological functioning are warranted.
PubMed ID
23445215 View in PubMed
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AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE BOYS: EARLY CHILDHOOD RISK AND RESILIENCE AMIDST CONTEXT AND CULTURE.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287287
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2017 01;38(1):115-127
Publication Type
Article
Date
01-2017
Author
Michelle Sarche
Greg Tafoya
Calvin D Croy
Kyle Hill
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2017 01;38(1):115-127
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives - psychology
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Culture
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Resilience, Psychological
Risk
Abstract
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescent and adult men experience a range of health disparities relative to their non-AIAN counterparts and AIAN women. Given the relatively limited literature on early development in tribal contexts, however, indicators of risk during early childhood specific to AIAN boys are not well-known. The current article reviews sources of strength and challenge within AIAN communities for AIAN children in general, including cultural beliefs and practices that support development, and contextual challenges related to socioeconomic and health disparities and historical trauma affecting the AIAN population as a whole. The research literature on early development is reviewed, highlighting what this literature reveals about early gender differences. The article concludes with calls to action on behalf of AIAN boys that align with each of the five tiers of R. Frieden's (2010) Public Health Pyramid.
PubMed ID
27966785 View in PubMed
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American Indian and Alaska Native resilience along the life course and across generations: A literature review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286016
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2016;23(3):134-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Christina E Oré
Nicolette I Teufel-Shone
Tara M Chico-Jarillo
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2016;23(3):134-57
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives - ethnology
Human Development
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Resilience, Psychological
Abstract
Examining American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) resilience using the life course framework could inform public health strategies that support favorable health outcomes, despite adversity (e.g., discrimination, historical loss, comorbidity). A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published from 1970 to 2015 yielded eight articles on AI/AN life course and resilience. A content analysis identified three themes. AI/AN resilience is 1) an ongoing, dynamic process, 2) evident within linked lives and life transitions, and 3) accessed through cultural knowledge and practice. Resilience research could change the paradigm of AI/AN health research to guide asset-based approaches across the life course.
PubMed ID
27383090 View in PubMed
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Anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms: A conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292474
Source
Asian J Psychiatr. 2017 Oct; 29:41-48
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Frederick Anyan
Lyn Worsley
Odin Hjemdal
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Research School of Psychology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Electronic address: frederick.anyan@ntnu.no.
Source
Asian J Psychiatr. 2017 Oct; 29:41-48
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Australia
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Norway
Resilience, Psychological
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Resilience has provided a useful framework that elucidates the effects of protective factors to overcome psychological adversities but studies that address the potential contingencies of resilience to protect against direct and indirect negative effects are lacking. These obvious gaps have also resulted in oversimplification of complex processes that can be clarified by moderated mediation associations. This study examines a conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience against indirect effects.
Two separate samples were recruited in a cross-sectional survey from Australia and Norway to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire -9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Stressful Negative Life Events Questionnaire and the Resilience Scale for Adults. The final sample sizes were 206 (females=114; males=91; other=1) and 210 (females=155; males=55) for Australia and Norway respectively. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted across the samples.
Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms in both samples. Conditional indirect effects of exposure to stressful negative life events on depressive symptoms mediated by anxiety symptoms showed that high subgroup of resilience was associated with less effect of exposure to stressful negative life events through anxiety symptoms on depressive symptoms than the low subgroup of resilience.
As a cross-sectional survey, the present study does not answer questions about causal processes despite the use of a conditional process modelling.
These findings support that, resilience protective resources can protect against both direct and indirect - through other channels - psychological adversities.
PubMed ID
29061426 View in PubMed
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Applying the lessons of SARS to pandemic influenza: an evidence-based approach to mitigating the stress experienced by healthcare workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153106
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Nov-Dec;99(6):486-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Robert G Maunder
Molyn Leszcz
Diane Savage
Mary Anne Adam
Nathalie Peladeau
Donna Romano
Marci Rose
Bernard Schulman
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. rmaunder@mtsinai.on.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Nov-Dec;99(6):486-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disaster Planning - organization & administration
Disease Outbreaks
Evidence-Based Medicine
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - therapy
Occupational Health
Ontario - epidemiology
Organizational Culture
Personnel Administration, Hospital - methods
Personnel, Hospital - psychology
Resilience, Psychological
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - epidemiology - therapy
Social Justice
Stress, Psychological - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
We describe an evidence-based approach to enhancing the resilience of healthcare workers in preparation for an influenza pandemic, based on evidence about the stress associated with working in healthcare during the SARS outbreak. SARS was associated with significant long-term stress in healthcare workers, but not with increased mental illness. Reducing pandemic-related stress may best be accomplished through interventions designed to enhance resilience in psychologically healthy people. Applicable models to improve adaptation in individuals include Folkman and Greer's framework for stress appraisal and coping along with psychological first aid. Resilience is supported at an organizational level by effective training and support, development of material and relational reserves, effective leadership, the effects of the characteristics of "magnet hospitals," and a culture of organizational justice. Evidence supports the goal of developing and maintaining an organizational culture of resilience in order to reduce the expected stress of an influenza pandemic on healthcare workers. This recommendation goes well beyond the provision of adequate training and counseling. Although the severity of a pandemic is unpredictable, this effort is not likely to be wasted because it will also support the health of both patients and staff in normal times.
PubMed ID
19149392 View in PubMed
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Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268818
Source
Transcult Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;51(5):735-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Olga Ulturgasheva
Stacy Rasmus
Lisa Wexler
Kristine Nystad
Michael Kral
Source
Transcult Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;51(5):735-56
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Development
Alaska - ethnology
Arctic regions - ethnology
Canada - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Humans
Norway - ethnology
Resilience, Psychological
Siberia - ethnology
Social Support
Abstract
Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning.
PubMed ID
25217145 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: Comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266406
Source
Transcultural Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;51(5):735-756
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Ulturgasheva, O
Rasmus, S
Wexler, L
Nystad, K
Kral, M
Source
Transcultural Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;51(5):735-756
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic
Indigenous
Resilience
Vulnerability
youth
Abstract
Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning.
Less detail

Are some populations resilient to recessions? Economic fluctuations and mortality during a period of economic decline and recovery in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287963
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 Jan;32(1):77-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Mauricio Avendano
Heta Moustgaard
Pekka Martikainen
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 Jan;32(1):77-85
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Economic Recession
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mortality - trends
Resilience, Psychological
Suicide
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This paper uses individual-level longitudinal data on working-age Finns to examine the health effects of economic fluctuations during a period of economic decline (1989-1996) and recovery (1997-2007) in Finland. We used a nationally representative, longitudinal sample formed by linking population, employment and mortality registers (n = 698,484; 7,719,870 person-years). We implemented a region fixed-effect model that exploits within-regional variations over time in the unemployment rate to identify the effect of economic fluctuations on mortality, controlling for individual employment transitions. Unemployment rates increased from 5.2 % in 1989 to 19.8 % in 1996, declining gradually thereafter and reaching 9.7 % in 2007. Results indicate that these large fluctuations in the economy had no impact on the overall mortality of most working age Finns. The exception was highly educated men, who experienced an increase of 7 % (Rate ratio = 1.07, 95 % confidence interval 1.04, 1.10) for every one-point increase in the regional unemployment rate during the period 1989-1996 due to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and suicide. This increase, however, was not robust in models that used the employment to population ratio as measure of the economy. Unemployment rates were unrelated to mortality among females, lower educated men, and among any group during economic recovery (1997-2007). For most Finns, we found no consistent evidence of changes in mortality in response to contractions or expansions in the economy. Possible explanations include the weak impact of the recession on wages, as well as the generous unemployment insurance and social benefit system in Finland.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27730407 View in PubMed
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147 records – page 1 of 15.