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2010 records – page 1 of 201.

A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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30-Day Mortality after Cardiovascular Events in Persons with or without Alzheimer's Disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274270
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(1):241-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jari Heiskanen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Risto P Roine
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(1):241-9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Humans
Male
Morbidity
Myocardial Infarction
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Proportional Hazards Models
Residence Characteristics
Stroke
Abstract
Persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been suggested to receive suboptimal treatment. We studied the 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or myocardial infarction in individuals with or without AD.
An exposure matched cohort of all Finnish community-dwellers diagnosed with clinically verified AD in 2005-2012 (n?=?73,005) and 1-4 matched comparison persons/AD-affected person (n?=?215,449). Data on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke (n?=?16,419; deaths: n?=?2,748), hemorrhagic stroke (n?=?3,570; deaths: n?=?1,224), and myocardial infarction (n?=?15,304; deaths: n?=?3,804) were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge register. The main analyses were restricted to first-ever events.
Persons with AD had slightly higher 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.24,1.49), hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98,1.25), or myocardial infarction (adjusted HR, 1.40, 9% CI 1.30,1.51). The associations were not affected by age, gender, or co-morbidities and remained similar when patients with previous ischemic strokes or infarctions were included. The absolute risk increase in 30-day mortality after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and myocardial infarction were 4.9% (95% CI 3.3,6.5), 3.3% (95% CI - 1.6,8.2), and 7.5% (95% CI 5.0,10.0), respectively.
Although the 30-day mortality was somewhat higher in the AD cohort, the absolute differences were small indicating that acute treatment was not notably inferior in AD patients. The slightly higher mortality was not explained by co-morbidities but may reflect the higher mortality of AD persons in general, or treatment practice of patients with severe cognitive impairment.
PubMed ID
26401944 View in PubMed
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A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108246
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Dec;23(5):347-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Andrei Golenkov
Matthew Large
Olav Nielssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia.
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Dec;23(5):347-55
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Criminals - psychology
Female
Homicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Recurrence
Residence Characteristics
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Schizophrenic Psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation.
Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide.
Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism.
In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia.
PubMed ID
23913742 View in PubMed
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[Abortion-seeking women's views on the importance of social benefits as an alternative to induced abortion]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66187
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1976 May 10;96(13):768-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-1976

Abuse and neglect of older persons in seven cities in seven countries in Europe: a cross-sectional community study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121931
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Feb;58(1):121-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Jutta Lindert
Juan de Luna
Francisco Torres-Gonzales
Henrique Barros
Elisabeth Ioannidi-Kopolou
Maria Gabriella Melchiorre
Mindaugas Stankunas
Gloria Macassa
Joaquim F J Soares
Author Affiliation
Protestant University of Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany. mail@jlindert.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2013 Feb;58(1):121-32
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Elder Abuse - economics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emigrants and Immigrants - classification
Female
Germany
Greece
Humans
Italy
Lithuania
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Portugal
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Social Class
Spain
Sweden
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, neglect) of older persons (AO) in seven cities from seven countries in Europe (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), and to assess factors potentially associated with AO.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 (n = 4,467, aged 60-84). Potentially associated factors were grouped into domains (domain 1: age, gender, migration history; domain 2: education, occupation; domain 3: marital status, living situation; domain 4: habitation, income, financial strain). We calculated odds ratios (OR) with their respective 95 % confidence intervals (CI).
Psychological AO was the most common form of AO, ranging from 10.4 % (95 % CI 8.1-13.0) in Italy to 29.7 % (95 % CI 26.2-33.5) in Sweden. Second most common form was financial AO, ranging from 1.8 % (95 % CI 0.9-3.2) in Sweden to 7.8 % (95 % CI 5.8-10.1) in Portugal. Less common was physical AO, ranging from 1.0 % (95 % CI 0.4-2.1) in Italy to 4.0 % (95 % CI 2.6-5.8 %) in Sweden. Sexual AO was least common, ranging from 0.3 (95 % CI 0.0-1.1) in Italy and Spain to 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.7-2.8) in Greece. Being from Germany (AOR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.34-4.51), Sweden (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 2.28-4.39) or Lithuania (AOR 2.45, 95 % CI 1.75-3.43) was associated with increased prevalence rates of AO.
Country of residence of older people is independent from the four assessed domains associated with AO. Life course perspectives on AO are highly needed to get better insight, and to develop and implement prevention strategies targeted at decreasing prevalence rates of AO.
PubMed ID
22864651 View in PubMed
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Access and intensity of use of prescription analgesics among older Manitobans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150665
Source
Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;16(2):e322-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Cheryl A Sadowski
Anita G Carrie
Ruby E Grymonpre
Colleen J Metge
Phillip St John
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. csadowski@pharmacy.ualberta.ca
Source
Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;16(2):e322-30
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic - therapeutic use
Analgesics, Opioid - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Pain - drug therapy - epidemiology
Physician's Practice Patterns
Prescription Drugs
Residence Characteristics
Rural Population
Sex Factors
Urban Population
Abstract
Under-treatment of pain is frequently reported, especially among seniors, with chronic non-cancer pain most likely to be under-treated. Legislation regarding the prescribing/dispensing of opioid analgesics (including multiple prescription programs [MPP]) may impede access to needed analgesics.
To describe access and intensity of use of analgesics among older Manitobans by health region.
A cross-sectional study of non-Aboriginal non-institutionalized Manitoba residents over 65 years of age during April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003 was conducted using the Pharmaceutical Claims data and the Cancer Registry from the province of Manitoba. Access to analgesics (users/1000/Yr) and intensity of use (using defined daily dose [DDD] methodology) were calculated for non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and multiple-prescription-program opioids [MPP-opioids]. Usage was categorized by age, gender, and stratified by cancer diagnosis. Age-sex standardized rates of prevalence and intensity are reported for the eleven health regions of Manitoba.
Thirty-four percent of older Manitobans accessed analgesics during the study period. Female gender, increasing age, and a cancer diagnosis were associated with greater access and intensity of use of all classes of analgesics. Age-sex standardized access and intensity measures revealed the highest overall analgesic use in the most rural / remote regions of the province. However, these same regions had the lowest use of opioids, and MPP-opioids among residents lacking a cancer diagnosis.
This population-based study of analgesic use suggests that there may be variations in use of opioids and other analgesics depending on an urban or rural residence. The impact of programs such as the MPP program requires further study to describe its impact on analgesic use.
PubMed ID
19483264 View in PubMed
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Access and utilization: a continuum of health service environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211173
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Sep;43(6):975-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
M W Rosenberg
N T Hanlon
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Sep;43(6):975-83
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cluster analysis
Female
Health Facility Environment - standards
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Accessibility - standards
Health Services Research
Humans
Income
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
Birch and Abelson [1] argue that non-income based barriers might explain differences in utilization of health services within and between income groups. Databases which contain utilization data rarely allow for the modelling of geographic variation. In the Ontario Health Survey (OHS), individual observations are georeferenced at the Public Health Unit (PHU) scale, but PHUs cannot easily be used because of the large coefficients of variation. To overcome this problem, a cluster analysis is performed to create a service environment variable, which reflects differences in service availability, population size and rurality. Utilization of health services is then modelled as a logistic regression equation where the independent variables are age, sex, service environment and income to test the Birch and Abelson argument. This argument is then extended by controlling for age, health and income status. Based on the modelling results, the importance of geography to access and utilization is assessed.
PubMed ID
8888467 View in PubMed
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Accessibility and usability in housing: construct validity and implications for research and practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182854
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2003 Dec 2;25(23):1316-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2-2003
Author
Agneta Fänge
Susanne Iwarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Occupational Therapy, Lund University, Sweden. angeta.fange@arb.lu.se
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2003 Dec 2;25(23):1316-25
Date
Dec-2-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility
Disabled Persons
Female
Housing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this study was to validate the conceptual definitions of accessibility and usability, and to explore differences between objective accessibility assessments and subjective ratings of usability in different client groups.
The Housing Enabler and the Usability in My Home instruments were used for 131 persons above 18 years of age, living in ordinary housing and receiving a housing adaptation grant. Covariation between accessibility in four different housing sections and three different usability aspects were explored, for the total sample and for six sub-samples reflecting person-environment-activity transactions or demographic factors.
Significant correlations were found in the total sample, among clients aged 75-84, women, clients living alone, as well as among clients with high dependence in personal and instrumental ADL and in outdoor activities. Subjective usability evaluations of activity aspects and physical environmental aspects were correlated to accessibility indoors and outdoors, while personal and social aspects of usability were correlated to outdoor accessibility.
Accessibility and usability are concluded to be different but related concepts. The results indicate that e.g. age, civil status and ADL dependence affect how clients assess aspects of their housing situation. For efficient planning and evaluation of housing adaptations, assessment of housing accessibility, usability, and dependence in ADL is recommended.
PubMed ID
14617438 View in PubMed
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Accessibility to health care facilities in Montreal Island: an application of relative accessibility indicators from the perspective of senior and non-senior residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139831
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Antonio Paez
Ruben G Mercado
Steven Farber
Catherine Morency
Matthew Roorda
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario, Canada. paezha@mcmaster.ca
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:52
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Quebec
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transportation - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required.
Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold) for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons.
The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists).
Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be significantly less mobile than people of other age cohorts. The combination of average trip length estimates with the spatial distribution of health care facilities indicates that despite being more mobile, suburban residents tend to have lower levels of accessibility compared to central city residents. The effect is more marked for seniors. Furthermore, the results indicate that accessibility calculated using a fixed bandwidth would produce patterns of exposure to health care facilities that would be difficult to achieve for suburban seniors given actual mobility patterns.
The analysis shows large disparities in accessibility between seniors and non-seniors, between urban and suburban seniors, and between vehicle owning and non-owning seniors. This research was concerned with potential accessibility levels. Follow up research could consider the results reported here to select case studies of actual access and usage of health care facilities, and related health outcomes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20973969 View in PubMed
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2010 records – page 1 of 201.