AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with lowered blood levels in obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We sought to define the specific effects of different alleles of the gene encoding adiponectin. METHODS: We studied the associations of adiponectin gene sequence variations with body fat distribution and insulin indices in 503 White and 276 Black subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study cohort and subjects from a Finnish population. RESULTS: The His111 allele frequency of the Tyr111 His polymorphism in Finnish Type 2 diabetic subjects (n=254) was higher (5.1%) than in control subjects (n=270) (2.6%; P = 0.033). In the HERITAGE cohort, the His111 allele was associated with a lower insulin sensitivity index (P = 0.018) and a higher acute insulin response to glucose (P = 0.0098) in Whites. Other variants showed associations with adiposity and plasma lipid values only in Blacks. Among Blacks, the IVS2+G62T variant was associated with body fat (P = 0.002) and total cholesterol values (P = 0.005), and the Gly15Gly variant with cholesterol (P = 0.009) and triglyceride (P = 0.05) levels. The haplotype derived from these two polymorphisms was associated with total body fat, while the IVS2+G62T and Tyr111His-haplotype was associated with body fat and disposition index. CONCLUSIONS: The carriers of the His111 allele may have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Racial differences were found between Blacks and Whites in body composition and lipids according to ACDC genotypes. Sequence variants in the adiponectin gene appear to be associated with diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes.
Advanced age is commonly associated with progressive cochlear pathology and central auditory deficits, collectively known as presbycusis. The present study examined central correlates of presbycusis by measuring response properties of primary auditory cortex (AI) layer V neurons in the Fischer Brown Norway rat model. Layer V neurons represent the major output of AI to other cortical and subcortical regions (primarily the inferior colliculus). In vivo single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from 114 neurons in aged animals (29-33 mo) and compared with 105 layer V neurons in young-adult rats (4-6 mo). Three consecutive repetitions of a pure-tone receptive field map were run for each neuron. Age was associated with fewer neurons exhibiting classic V/U-shaped receptive fields and a greater percentage of neurons with more Complex receptive fields. Receptive fields from neurons in aged rats were also less reliable on successive repetitions of the same stimulus set. Aging was also associated with less firing during the stimulus in V/U-shaped receptive field neurons and more firing during the stimulus in Complex neurons, which were generally associated with inhibited firing in young controls. Finally, neurons in aged rats with Complex receptive fields were more easily driven by current pulses delivered to the soma. Collectively, these findings provide support for the notion that age is associated with diminished signal-to-noise coding by AI layer V neurons and are consistent with other research suggesting that GABAergic neurotransmission in AI may be compromised by aging.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether aged myocardium exhibits decreased responsiveness to adenosine A1 and A(2a) receptor activation. Studies were conducted in adult (4-6 months) and aged (24-26 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway hybrid (F344 x BN) rats. Effects of the adenosine A1/A(2a) agonist AMP579 were measured in isolated hearts and in rats submitted to in vivo regional myocardial ischemia. Aged isolated hearts exhibited lower spontaneous heart rates and higher coronary resistance, as well as normal A1- and A(2a)-mediated responses. There was no difference in control infarct size between adult and aged rats; however, AMP579 treatment resulted in a 50% greater infarct size reduction in aged rats (18 +/- 4% of risk area) compared to adult rats (37 +/- 3%). These findings suggest that adenosine A1 and A(2a) receptor-mediated effects are not diminished in normal aged myocardium, and that aged hearts exhibit increased adenosine agonist-induced infarct reduction.
The effect of age on the number and morphology of optic nerve axons in adult Brown Norway rats (5-31 months old) (n=29) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By manually counting every axon in areas representing 60% of the optic nerve cross-section, we found a significant negative correlation between age and axon count (R(2)=0.18, P
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies of the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been inconsistent, probably because of small sample sizes of individual studies that result from stratification by NHL subtype and type of alcoholic beverage. We aimed to assess the role of alcohol consumption in NHL with sufficient sample size to analyse by both type of alcoholic beverage and disease subtype. METHODS: We obtained original data from nine case-control studies from the USA, UK, Sweden, and Italy in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph), yielding a pooled study population of 15 175 individuals (6492 cases and 8683 controls). We derived odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI from unconditional logistic regression models, controlling for study centre and other confounding factors. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by comparison of results from joint fixed-effects logistic regression and two-stage random-effects logistic regression, and by calculation of Wald chi(2) statistics. FINDINGS: People who drank alcohol had a lower risk of NHL than did non-drinkers (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.76-0.89]). Compared with non-drinkers, risk estimates were lower for current drinkers than for former drinkers (0.73 [0.64-0.84] vs 0.95 [0.80-1.14]), but risk did not decrease with increasing alcohol consumption. The protective effect of alcohol did not vary by beverage type, but did change with NHL subtype. The lowest risk estimates were recorded for Burkitt's lymphoma (0.51 [0.33-0.77]). INTERPRETATION: People who drink alcoholic beverages might have a lower risk of NHL than those who do not, and this risk might vary by NHL subtype. Further study designs are needed to determine whether confounding lifestyle factors or immunomodulatory effects of alcohol explain this association.
BACKGROUND: Although the published literature on alcohol beverage taxes, prices, sales, and related problems treats alcoholic beverages as a simple good, alcohol is a complex good composed of different beverage types (i.e., beer, wine, and spirits) and quality brands (e.g., high-, medium-, and low-quality beers). As a complex good, consumers may make substitutions between purchases of different beverage types and brands in response to price increases. For this reason, the availability of a broad range of beverage prices provides opportunities for consumers to mitigate the effects of average price increases through quality substitutions; a change in beverage choice in response to price increases to maintain consumption. METHODS: Using Swedish price and sales data provided by Systembolaget for the years 1984 through 1994, this study assessed the relationships between alcohol beverage prices, beverage quality, and alcohol sales. The study examined price effects on alcohol consumption using seemingly unrelated regression equations to model the impacts of price increases within 9 empirically defined quality classes across beverage types. The models enabled statistical assessments of both own-price and cross-price effects between types and classes. RESULTS: The results of these analyses showed that consumers respond to price increases by altering their total consumption and by varying their brand choices. Significant reductions in sales were observed in response to price increases, but these effects were mitigated by significant substitutions between quality classes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the net impacts of purposeful price policy to reduce consumption will depend on how such policies affect the range of prices across beverage brands.
BACKGROUND: The literature on social networks and social supports attests to the powerful influence of social relationships on health; there is a dearth of such studies with American Indians/Alaska Natives. METHOD: This exploratory study assesses the social network topology and perceived social supports received among American Indian cancer survivors and matched controls. RESULTS: Although there did not appear to be marked differences overall among cases and controls, expressive social supports (eg, companionship, moral support, encouragement, advice, and friendship) were ranked highly across each component of the network. CONCLUSIONS: The family appears to be the principal source of social supports relative to either best/closest friend or church/community.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The purpose of this article was to examine differences in demographics, general health status, and utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening for subgroups of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: The statewide distribution of California American Indians, non-California AIANs, and unknown AIANs are 10%, 51%, and 39%, respectively. Significant differences exist among the 3 tribal subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, AIAN women aged 40+ years are close to the Healthy People 2010 goals for receipt of a mammogram in the past 2 years and for receipt of a Pap test ever and in the past 3 years. Less than 5% of AIAN in California report Indian Health Service coverage.
PURPOSE: Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is considered a genetically determined idiopathic partial epilepsy. We analyzed a large sample of twins from four international twin registers to probe the genetics of BRE. We also aim to synthesize the apparently conflicting family and twin data into a model of BRE etiology. METHODS: Large population-based twin registries of epilepsies from Odense (Denmark), Richmond, Virginia (United States), and Oslo (Norway) were reviewed for BRE cases and added to our Australian twin data. Diagnosis of classic BRE was based on electroclinical criteria with normal neurologic development. Cases with a compatible electroclinical picture but abnormal neurologic development were termed non-classic BRE. RESULTS: Eighteen twin pairs were identified (10 monozygous; eight dizygous) of whom at least one twin was diagnosed with classic BRE among a total sample of 1,952 twin pairs validated for seizures, and all were discordant for BRE. The estimated monozygous pairwise concordance for BRE in this sample was 0.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0-0.3). Four twin pairs (one monozygous, three dizygous) had non-classic BRE, and all co-twins had seizures. CONCLUSIONS: The twin data showing an absence of any concordant twin pairs with classic BRE suggest that noninherited factors are of major importance in BRE. Modelling the data shows that the familial occurrence of centrotemporal spikes makes only a minor contribution to the familial aggregation of BRE. Genetic factors are probably more important in non-classic BRE. The etiology and mode(s) of inheritance of BRE are much more complicated than initially conceptualized.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the extent to which relationships between apolipoprotein E, cognitive functioning, and survival in people aged 60 to 80 persist into advanced old age. DESIGN: Examine the effect of apolipoprotein E genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over 5 years, and survival in a cohort of 1,551 nonagenarians. SETTING: The Danish 1905 birth cohort. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand five hundred fifty-one nonagenarians from the Danish 1905 birth cohort. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and five brief cognitive tests (cognitive composite). RESULTS: The subjects were stratified into four groups by occurrence of a protective (epsilon2) or a risk (epsilon4) apo E allele (epsilon22 and epsilon23, epsilon33, epsilon24 and epsilon34, epsilon44). At intake, the mean scores for the three genotype groups were 22.1, 21.8, 21.4, and 21.0 for MMSE and 0.10, 0.07, -0.02, and 0.30 for the cognitive composite, respectively. Growth-curve analyses showed that, although individuals carrying at least one epsilon4 allele had slightly lower MMSE scores and declined slightly more rapidly over time, this effect was not statistically significant and was not apparent in scores on the cognitive composite. In subjects whose functioning was relatively well preserved (those still living and able to participate in the assessment, and whose cognitive functioning had declined less than 4 points on the MMSE), epsilon4 frequencies tended to decline at subsequent waves (P=.03, chi-square test for trend), but epsilon4 had no significant survival disadvantage (hazard ratio=1.11 (95% confidence interval=0.99-1.25; P=.07). CONCLUSION: Apo E genotype has a small effect on the probability of remaining a well-functioning nonagenarian but no separately detectable effect on cognitive functioning, cognitive decline, or survival.