In the two years since the last workshop report, the environment surrounding the prediction of skin sensitisation hazards has experienced major change. Validated non-animal tests are now OECD Test Guidelines. Accordingly, the recent cross sector workshop focused on how to use in vitro data for regulatory decision-making. After a review of general approaches and six case studies, there was broad consensus that a simple, transparent stepwise process involving non-animal methods was an opportunity waiting to be seized. There was also strong feeling the approach should not be so rigidly defined that assay variations/additional tests are locked out. Neither should it preclude more complex integrated approaches being used for other purposes, e.g. potency estimation. All agreed the ultimate goal is a high level of protection of human health. Thus, experience in the population will be the final arbiter of whether toxicological predictions are fit for purpose. Central to this is the reflection that none of the existing animal assays is perfect; the non-animal methods should not be expected to be so either, but by integrated use of methods and all other relevant information, including clinical feedback, we have the opportunity to continue to improve toxicology whilst avoiding animal use.
An international team of research scientists has created this peer-reviewed website which tracks multiple changes in the arctic environment. The Report Card is organized by NOAA and will be updated annually.
About 50% of the elderly population report being dissatisfied with their sleep. Although benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs to treat sleep complaints, the effectiveness of their use on the quality of sleep is not well documented.
This study aimed to assess the association between benzodiazepine use and global sleep quality, as well as six components of sleep quality.
Data from the cross-sectional Quebec Survey on Seniors' Health (n = 2798) conducted in 2005-2006 were used. Quality of sleep was self-reported and use of benzodiazepines was assessed during the previous year.
Benzodiazepine users reported poorer quality of sleep than non-users. The association between benzodiazepine use and each of the six quality of sleep components studied were similar except for the daytime dysfunction component.
The results suggest that there is no evidence that using benzodiazepines is associated with better quality of sleep than non-users in the elderly population. Future longitudinal population-based studies are needed to assess improvements in quality of sleep in the elderly associated with the use of benzodiazepines.
We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using Nitrox 50 as breathing gas during attendance in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber.
Paper logs between Jan.-Dec. 2011 were reviewed to analyze nitrogen gas-loading, actual bottom time, total bottom time and surface interval time. With the use of the Norwegian Diving Tables nitrogen gas-loading was converted to Repetitive Group Letters. Symptoms of decompression sickness and health problems related to hyperbaric exposures were registered at weekly staff meetings. The chamber personnel breathed chamber air or Nitrox 50.
1,207 hyperbaric exposures were distributed to five chamber attendants and technicians, 14 doctors, and six nurses. Nitrox 50 was inhaled on 978 occasions (81.0%). Median nitrogen gas-loading after first pressurization complied with Repetitive Group Letter A (range A-E), second to C (range A-F), third to D (range A-F), fourth to E (range C-H), fifth to F (range C-H), and sixth to E (range B-G). No symptoms of decompression sickness were reported (95% CI 0.00-0.33%).
Breathing Nitrox 50 during repetitive hyperbaric sessions seems to be feasible and safe while meeting high demands in number of treatment sessions and patient flow and with fewer people employed in the hyperbaric unit.
The aim of this study is to examine the association between bullying behaviour at the age of 8 and becoming a mother under the age of 20. This birth cohort study included 2,867 Finnish girls at baseline in 1989. Register-based follow-up data on births was collected until the end of 2001. Information, both on the main exposure and outcome, was available for 2,507 girls. Both bullies and victims had an increased risk of becoming a teenage mother independent of family-related risk factors. When controlled for childhood psychopathology, however, the association remained significant for bullies (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1) and bully-victims (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.05-3.2), but not for pure victims. Reports of bullying and victimisation from the girls themselves, their parents and their teachers were all associated with becoming a teenage mother independent of each other. There is a predictive association between being a bully in childhood and becoming a mother in adolescence. It may be useful to target bullies for teenage pregnancy prevention.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 Aug;14(3):6421764863
Epidemiologic studies have adapted to the genomics era by forming large international consortia to overcome issues of large data volume and small sample size. Whereas both cohort and well-conducted case-control studies can inform disease risk from genetic susceptibility, cohort studies offer the additional advantages of assessing lifestyle and environmental exposure-disease time sequences often over a life course. Consortium involvement poses several logistical and ethical issues to investigators, some of which are unique to cohort studies, including the challenge to harmonize prospectively collected lifestyle and environmental exposures validly across individual studies. An open forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges of large-scale cohorts and their consortia was held in June 2009 in Banff, Canada, and is summarized in this report.
The case series is the most prevalent type of clinical research in the plastic surgery literature. However, this is a lower level study design in the hierarchy of evidence. The case series is nevertheless a useful hypothesis generator for future studies. These in turn can be tested with more robust study designs such as the randomized controlled trial. Because the case series remains the most common study design used to communicate our new innovations, there is a need to improve its reporting so that readers will know why the study was undertaken, what the results were, and how the results affect patient care. The authors provide a guide to help future investigators improve the conduct and the reporting of their case series.
We report the incidence and mortality of paediatric drowning incidents according to 'Utstein Style for Drowning' guidelines.
Retrospective study including all the drowned children under 16 years of age who were hospitalised or died with or without attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) between 1997 and 2007 in the province of Uusimaa, Finland. Survival rates provided at hospital discharge and after 1-year follow-up period are reported.
A total of 58 drowned children were either admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit or died during the study period. The median (interquartile range) age was 5.9 (3.1, 7.8) years. The annual incidence of drowning was 1.9/100,000 and was highest, 2.8/100,000, in children aged between 1 and 4 years. The annual mortality rate was 0.9/100,000. Of all the 58 patients, 14 (24%) died at the scene, 22 (38.1%) before the hospital discharge, and 26 (45%) within the 1 year. The number of non-fatal drownings was 1.2-fold that of fatal drownings. The survival rate of the 26 patients for whom CPR was initiated by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel was 42% at hospital discharge, with the 1-year survival rate being 27%.
The incidence of drowning in children and the survival rate of those children in whom CPR was initiated by EMS personnel was in line with the previously reported. However, the overall mortality rate in drowned children was higher than estimated in previous studies.