Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in prediction of where-in which organisms-to search for novel molecules or better sources of known molecules in marine organisms. In a further perspective, the deeper understanding of evolution and development of life on Earth can also provide answers to why marine organisms produce specific molecules.
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
The purpose of this review was to summarize the research on adolescent gambling with implications for research and prevention or intervention.
The methodology involved a comprehensive and systematic search of "adolescent or youth gambling" in three diverse electronic databases (MedlineAdvanced, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts) and three peer-reviewed journals (International Journal of Gambling Studies, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, and Journal of Gambling Issues).
The search resulted in 137 articles (1985-2010) focusing on gambling among youth aged between 9 and 21 years: 103 quantitative, 8 qualitative, and 26 non-empirical. The study of adolescent gambling can be summarized as follows: (a) it is conducted by a relatively small group of researchers in Britain, Canada, and the United States; (b) it is primarily prevalence-focused, quantitative, descriptive, school-based, and atheoretical; (c) it has most often been published in the Journal of Gambling Studies; (d) it is most often examined in relation to alcohol use; (e) it has relatively few valid and reliable screening instruments that are developmentally appropriate for adolescents, and (f) it lacks racially diverse samples.
Four recommendations are presented for both research and prevention or intervention which are as follows: (1) to provide greater attention to the development and validation of survey instruments or diagnostic criteria to assess adolescent problem gambling; (2) to begin to develop and test more gambling prevention or intervention strategies; (3) to not only examine the co-morbidity of gambling and alcohol abuse, but also include other behaviors such as sexual activity; and (4) to pay greater attention to racial and ethnic differences in the study of adolescent gambling.
The number of cognitively impaired elderly in Canada has increased greatly during the past two decades; nearly all have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The memory problems and changes in language and communication of these patients place tremendous strain on physicians who are searching for a differential diagnosis and are trying to communicate with them. Reviewing the salient language and communication features of AD patients leads to strategies for improving effective physician-patient communication.
OBJECTIVES: To examine if Aboriginal health research conducted within the field of social sciences reflects the population and geographic diversity of the Aboriginal population. STUDY DESIGN: Review. METHODS: We searched the Web of Science Social Science Citation Index, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index and Scholars Portal for the time period 1995-2005 using search terms to reflect different names used to refer to Canada's Aboriginal peoples. Citations that did not focus on health or Canada were eliminated. Each paper was coded according to 7 broad categories: Aboriginal identity group; geography; age; health status; health determinants; health services; and methods. RESULTS: Based on the 96 papers reviewed, the results show an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal peoples. Most of the papers are on health status and non-medical determinants of health, with a particular focus on chronic conditions and life-style behaviours. Only 6 papers examined traditional approaches to healing and/or access to traditional healers/medicines. A small number involved the use of community-based research methods. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to address gaps in the current body of literature. Community-based research studies are necessary to address gaps that are most relevant to Aboriginal peoples.