Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Women's, Children's, and Family Health 3601C?St., Suite 358, Anchorage, AK, United States; The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Injury Prevention Research Center, 137 East Franklin St, CB# 7505, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, United States. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Accurate estimation of the incidence of maltreatment-related child mortality depends on reliable child fatality review. We examined the inter-rater reliability of maltreatment designation for two Alaskan Child Death Review (CDR) panels. Two different multidisciplinary CDR panels each reviewed a series of 101 infant and child deaths (ages 0-4 years) in Alaska. Both panels independently reviewed identical medical, autopsy, law enforcement, child welfare, and administrative records for each death utilizing the same maltreatment criteria. Percent agreement for maltreatment was 64.7% with a weighted Kappa of 0.61 (95% CI 0.51, 0.70). Across maltreatment subtypes, agreement was highest for abuse (69.3%) and lowest for negligence (60.4%). Discordance was higher if the mother was unmarried or a smoker, if residence was rural, or if there was a family history of child protective services report(s). Incidence estimates did not depend on which panel's data were used. There is substantial room for improvement in the reliability of CDR panel assessment of maltreatment related mortality. Standardized decision guidance for CDR panels may improve the reliability of their data.
OBJECTIVE Histological evaluation of intestinal biopsies for the diagnosis of coeliac disease can be challenging and compatible with risk of misdiagnosis. The aim was to evaluate the agreement of pathological diagnosis for coeliac disease in children investigated at four major paediatric university hospitals in Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS Intestinal duodenal biopsies were collected from 402 children at median 9.7 years (1.4-18.3 years). A pathologist at each hospital performed the primary evaluation. A designated pathologist, blinded to the primary evaluation, performed a second Marsh classification of biopsies (M0 to M3c) taken from the bulb and duodenum separately. Kappa (?) scores between first and second evaluation determined the agreement. Plasma samples were collected at the day of intestinal biopsy and analysed for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) using radioligand-binding assays. RESULTS Marsh scores were concordant in 229/356 biopsies (64%, ? = 0.52, p
Based on over 50,000 parental descriptors of children gathered in eight different countries, we used a combination of focus group sorting of descriptors in each country and factor analyses of instruments developed in four of the countries (United States, China, Greece, and the Netherlands) to describe children ages 3 to 12 years to select items for an instrument that would work well across countries to access personality. Through many factor analyses of indigenous items in each country, a core set of 141 items was used in three of the countries, with over 3000 parents responding to our instruments in China, Greece, and the United States. Much cross-comparative research analysis has resulted in 15 robust midlevel scales that describe the structures of parental descriptors that are common to the three countries. The data on the English (U.S.) sample are presented in detail. Links to temperament and behavior problems are presented and discussed.
A Swedish non-word repetition test for preschool children was constructed with the aim of measuring short-term phonological memory, which has been shown to correlate with language development and language proficiency. Normative data based on results for 200 children four to six years of age are presented. An item analysis of the original 30-item test resulted in a shortened 24 non-word version found suitable for four- to six-year old children. Results for this shortened version, which had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.73, showed longer non-words to be more difficult to repeat than shorter ones, and significant effects of age and compatibility of the tester's and the child's accent, but not of gender. The results are discussed within the framework of Baddeley's working memory model.
Early recognition of children's mental health problems calls for structured methods in front line services. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a commonly used short questionnaire in screening child's mental difficulties.
To test the reliability and descriptive properties of the SDQ in a community sample of Finnish 4-9-year-old children (n =?4178).
Both parents, two teachers in day-care or a teacher at school completed the SDQ. To control for possible bias, public health nurses rated their concern about every child's mental health, including non-participants.
The internal consistencies of the SDQ total score in all informants' reports were satisfactory to good. Agreement (Spearman rho) in total scores between parents was 0.65, between parent and teacher 0.43 and between two teachers in day-care 0.81. The stability in parent's reports over 12 weeks was good. The distributions of the informant-rated scores indicated significant and clinically important gender differences, and the 80th and 90th percentiles were generally below the international cut-off points. Public health nurses reported emotional or behavioural difficulties more commonly in non-participants (12%) than in participants (7%; p
Normative data on the objective age of acquisition (AoA) for 286 Russian words are presented in this article. In addition, correlations between the objective AoA and subjective ratings, name agreement, picture name agreement, imageability, familiarity, word frequency, and word length are provided, as are correlations between the objective AoA and two measures of exemplar dominance (exemplar generation frequency and the number of times an exemplar was named first). The correlations between the aforementioned variables are generally consistent with the correlations reported in other normative studies. The objective AoA data are highly correlated with the subjective AoA ratings, whereas the correlations between the objective AoA and other psycholinguistic variables are moderate. The correlations between the objective AoA of Russian words and similar data for other languages are moderately high. The complete word norms may be downloaded from supplementary material.
The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from four large scale cohorts. Three theoretical models were examined: 1. a model with five first order factors (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional, peer problems and prosocial), 2. a model adding two internalising and externalising second order factors to model 1, and 3. a model adding a total difficulties second order factor to model 1. Model fits were evaluated, multi-group analyses were carried out and average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) estimates were examined. In this general population sample, low risk sample models 1 and 2 showed similar good overall fits. Best model fits were found when two positively worded items were allowed to cross load with the prosocial scale, and cross loadings were allowed for among three sets of indicators. The analyses also revealed that model fits were slightly better for teachers than for parents and better for older children than for younger children. No convincing differences were found between boys and girls. Factor loadings were acceptable for all groups, especially for older children rated by teachers. Some emotional, peer, conduct and prosocial subscale problems were revealed for younger children rated by parents. The analyses revealed more internal consistency for older children rated by teachers than for younger children rated by parents. It is recommended that model 1 comprising five first order factors, or alternatively model 2 with additionally two internalising/externalising second order factors, should be used when employing the SDQ in low risk epidemiological samples.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Measuring ethnicity accurately is important for identifying ethnicity variations in disease risk. We evaluated the degree of agreement and accuracy of maternal ethnicity measured using the new standardized closed-ended geographically based ethnicity question and geographic reclassification of open-ended ethnicity questions from the Canadian census.
A prospectively designed study of respondent agreement of mothers of healthy children aged 1-5 years recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. For the primary analysis, the degree of agreement between geographic reclassification of the Canadian census maternal ethnicity variables and the new geographically based closed-ended maternal ethnicity variable completed by the same respondent was evaluated using a kappa analysis.
Eight hundred sixty-two mothers who completed both measures of ethnicity were included in the analysis. The kappa agreement statistic for the two definitions of maternal ethnicity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.90) indicating good agreement. Overall accuracy of the measurement was 93%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 83% to 100% and 96% to 100%, respectively.
The new standardized closed-ended geographically based ethnicity question represents a practical alternative to widely used open-ended ethnicity questions. It may reduce risk of misinterpretation of ethnicity by respondents, simplify analysis, and improve the accuracy of ethnicity measurement.
Childhood asthma prevalence is widely measured by parental proxy report of physician-diagnosed asthma in questionnaires. Our objective was to validate this measure in a North American population.
The 2884 study participants were a subsample of 5619 school children aged 5 to 9 years from 231 schools participating in the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire study in 2006. We compared agreement between "questionnaire diagnosis" and a previously validated "health claims data diagnosis". Sensitivity, specificity and kappa were calculated for the questionnaire diagnosis using the health claims diagnosis as the reference standard.
Prevalence of asthma was 15.7% by questionnaire and 21.4% by health claims data. Questionnaire diagnosis was insensitive (59.0%) but specific (95.9%) for asthma. When children with asthma-related symptoms were excluded, the sensitivity increased (83.6%), and specificity remained high (93.6%).
Our results show that parental report of asthma by questionnaire has low sensitivity but high specificity as an asthma prevalence measure. In addition, children with "asthma-related symptoms" may represent a large fraction of under-diagnosed asthma and they should be excluded from the inception cohort for risk factor studies.
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The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) assesses functional status in children with disabilities aged 0.5-7.5 years. The purpose of this study was to examine if the Danish version of the PEDI was able to discriminate between nondisabled children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Convenience sampling was used to select the clinical samples that consisted of 22 children with CP and 14 children with JIA aged 1.5-7.5 years. An additional sample, consisting of 224 nondisabled children aged 1.0-5.9 years, was obtained on the basis of random sampling. The PEDI was administered as a questionnaire completed by the parents. Results from receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed that in the case of discrimination between children with CP and nondisabled children, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.3 and 97.8%, respectively. In the discrimination between children with JIA and nondisabled children, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.8 and 81.7%, respectively. Study results indicate that the Danish version of the PEDI shows good discriminative validity. Further studies of the discriminative validity are recommended.