The aims of this study were to translate the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) classification system for skin tears into Swedish and to validate the translated system. The research process consisted of two phases. Phase I involved the translation of the classification system, using the forward-back translation method, and a consensus survey. The survey dictated that the best Swedish translation for "skin tear" was "hudfliksskada." In Phase 2, the classification system was validated by health care professionals attending a wound care conference held in the spring of 2017 in Sweden. Thirty photographs representing three types of skin tear were presented to participants in random order. Participants were directed to classify the skin tear types in a data collection sheet. The results indicated a moderate level of agreement on classification of skin tears by type. Achieving moderate agreement for the ISTAP skin tear tool is an important milestone as it demonstrates the validity and reliability of the tool. Skin tear classification typing is a complex skill that requires training and time to develop. More education is required for all health care specialists on the classification of skin tears.
Negative body perception has been reported in a number of patient populations. No instrument in Danish for measuring body image-related concerns has been available. Without such an instrument, understanding of the phenomenon in Danish-speaking populations is limited. The purpose of the study was thus to translate and validate a Danish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), in order to obtain a valid instrument applicable for healthcare research.
The study consisted of two phases: (i) instrument adaptation, including forward and back translation, expert committee comparisons and cognitive interviewing, and (ii) empirical testing of the Danish version (BIQLI-DA) with subsequent psychometric evaluation. Hypothesised correlations to other measures, including body mass index (BMI), Medical Outcome Short Form-8 (SF-8), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder-7 and Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R(®) ) were tested. In addition, exploratory factor structure analysis (EFA) and internal consistency on item and scale level were performed.
The adapted instrument was found to be semantically sound, yet concerns about face validity did arise through cognitive interviews. Danish college students (n = 189, 65 men, Mage = 21.1 years) participated in the piloting of the BIQLI-DA. Convergent construct validity was demonstrated through associations to related constructs. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a potential subscale structure. Finally, results showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). Support for the validity of the BIQLI-DA might have been strengthened by repeating cognitive interviews after layout alterations, by piloting the instrument on a larger sample.
This study demonstrated tentative support for the validity of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life (BIQLI-DA) and found the measure to be reliable in terms of internal consistency. Further exploration of response processes and construct validity is needed.
To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines.
A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric properties.
1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges.
The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: "Nursing care", "Value-based nursing care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership in and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition, evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained.
The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses.
The Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS) is a self-report scale used to measure individual differences in susceptibility to converge towards the emotions expressed by others. The original American ECS (Doherty, 1997), translated into Swedish, was completed by 665 undergraduate students in two independent samples (N = 233 and N = 432, respectively). To investigate the factor structure of the ECS, confirmatory factor analyses of alternative models derived from previous research in emotion and emotional contagion were conducted. The results showed that the proposed one-dimensional structure of the ECS was not tenable. Instead a multi-facet model based on a differential emotions model and a hierarchal valence/differential emotions model was supported. Cross-validation on the second independent sample demonstrated and confirmed the multi-faceted property of the ECS and the equality of the factor structure across samples and genders. With regard to homogeneity and test-retest reliability, the Swedish version showed acceptable results and was in concordance with the original version.
The process of development and testing of the Lang and Goulet Hardiness Scale (LGHS), a self-report instrument designed to measure hardiness in bereaved parents following the death of their fetus/infant, is presented. Hardiness is a personal resource, composed of 3 interdependent components that are characterized by a sense of personal control over the outcome of life events and hardships such as the death of a fetus/infant, an active orientation toward meeting the challenges brought on by the loss, and a belief in the ability to make sense of one's own existence following such a tragedy. The concept of hardiness has been studied by various disciplines and in a multitude of settings to understand its ability to lessen potentially negative effects of life stress. However, it has never been studied within the context of parental bereavement. The LGHS was developed systematically, originating from a concept analysis. A panel of 15 experts was used to establish content validity.A pretest was conducted on 73 bereaved individuals to assess convergent and discriminant validity of the LGHS. Subsequently, a validation study on 220 bereaved parents who had experienced the death of their fetus/infant 2 months previously was conducted including a retest 6 months after the loss with 192 of the remaining participants. Analyses reveal that the LGHS is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring hardiness and that it is sensitive enough to detect changes in the construct over time.
Many new mothers discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. Researchers have shown that maternal confidence is an important factor in the continuation of breastfeeding. The purpose of this methodological study was to develop and conduct preliminary psychometric assessment of an instrument to measure confidence in new breastfeeding mothers. Using self-efficacy theory as a conceptual framework, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) was developed and content validity was judged by a panel of experts and through interviews with experienced breastfeeding mothers. Following a pilot test, the revised BSES was assessed with 130 in-hospital breastfeeding mothers for reliability and validity, including internal consistency, principal components factor analysis, comparison of contrasted groups, and correlations with measures of similar constructs. Support for predictive validity was demonstrated with positive correlations between BSES scores and infant feeding patterns at 6 weeks postpartum. Following further testing, this instrument may be used to identify new mothers with low breastfeeding confidence who are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding.
There is evidence that clinicians' pain attitudes and beliefs are associated with the pain beliefs and illness perceptions of their patients and furthermore influence their recommendations for activity and work to patients with back pain. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (PABS) is a questionnaire designed to differentiate between biomedical and biopsychosocial pain attitudes among health care providers regarding common low back pain. The original version had 36 items, and several shorter versions have been developed. Concern has been raised over the PABS' internal construct validity because of low internal consistency and low explained variance. The aim of this study was to examine and improve the scale's measurement properties and item performance.
A convenience sample of 667 Norwegian physiotherapists provided data for Rasch analysis. The biomedical and biopsychosocial subscales of the PABS were examined for unidimensionality, local response independency, invariance, response category function and targeting of persons and items. Reliability was measured with the person separation index (PSI). Items originally excluded by the developers of the scale because of skewness were re-introduced in a second analysis.
Our analysis suggested that both subscales required removal of several psychometrically redundant and misfitting items to satisfy the requirements of the Rasch measurement model. Most biopsychosocial items needed revision of their scoring structure. Furthermore, we identified two items originally excluded because of skewness that improved the reliability of the subscales after re-introduction. The ultimate result was two strictly unidimensional subscales, each consisting of seven items, with invariant item ordering and free from any form of misfit. The unidimensionality implies that summation of items to valid total scores is justified. Transformation tables are provided to convert raw ordinal scores to unbiased interval-level scores. Both subscales were adequately targeted at the ability level of our physiotherapist population. Reliability of the biomedical subscale as measured with the PSI was 0.69. A low PSI of 0.64 for the biopsychosocial subscale indicated limitations with regard to its discriminative ability.
Rasch analysis produced an improved Norwegian version of the PABS which represents true (fundamental) measurement of clinicians' biomedical and biopsychosocial treatment orientation. However, researchers should be aware of the low discriminative ability of the biopsychosocial subscale when analyzing differences and effect changes.
The study presents a revised PABS that provides interval-level measurement of clinicians' pain beliefs. The revision allows for confident use of parametric statistical analysis. Further examination of discriminative validity is required.
The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) is a well recognized measuring instrument for pain in English-speaking countries. Several efforts have been made to develop equivalent pain-measuring instruments in other languages. However, the method of translating the English words contained in the MPQ into another language implies that questions about validity may be posed. In Norway three different pain questionnaires have been developed which are inspired by the MPQ. A primary focus for developing the Norwegian Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) was the semantics of pain; the focus of the adapted MPQ was to include commonly used somatosensory Norwegian descriptors of pain in the population of patients with low back pain; the Norwegian McGill Pain Questionnaire (NMPQ) was literally translated into Norwegian to provide a equivalent pain questionnaire to the MPQ for cross-cultural comparisons of pain. Examination of content validity of the adapted MPQ and the translated version of the MPQ is examined by comparing the words in those questionnaires with words collected among Norwegians in the process of developing the NPQ. The findings support the content validity of the adapted MPQ. The NMPQ, however, should be further refined to better fit the semantics of pain in Norway.
The present study compared the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE; 16.0) and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; 6.0) and investigated the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the EDE. Fifty-eight university women aged 19-41 years (mean BMI?=?23) were assessed with the EDE and EDE-Q. Satisfactory internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were demonstrated for the Norwegian translation of the EDE. Generally high convergent validity between the EDE and EDE-Q was found, with correlations ranging from 0.60 (Eating Concern) to 0.86 (Weight Concern). Agreement for OBEs and vomiting were excellent, while driven exercising generated lower levels of convergence. Consistent with prior studies, the EDE-Q generated significantly higher levels of psychopathology, although effect sizes were small. Owing to the significantly higher EDE-Q scores, it is ill advised to administer these two instruments interchangeably, as this may fail to produce meaningful data.