To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy.
The Danish Nurse Cohort Study (DNCS), a prospective risk factor and hormone therapy study.
Participants in the 1999 DNCS.
Self-reported exact and categorical birthweight data from the DNCS was compared with data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR), which contains birthweight data.
Accuracy of self-reported birthweight expressed as mean difference with limits of agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV).
Exact birthweight was available for 441 participants. The correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mean difference was -21 g and limits of agreement were -843 to 818 g. A total of 74% answered correctly within 250 g while 7% were more than 500 g in error. Categorical birthweight was available for 925 participants. A total of 87% reported the correct birthweight. Sensitivity and PPV were high for normal birthweight, whereas specificity and NPV were better for high and low birthweight (HBW and LBW). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that HBW, LBW and being the daughter of a young mother decreased the accuracy of self-reported birthweight.
Self-reported birthweight is a valid measure of actual birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women. Due to the lower accuracy of HBW and LBW, studies of the association between birthweight and chronic disease may underestimate the true effect of these weights.
Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants' experiences with this mode of survey administration.
An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children's Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4) to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey) survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2) where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115). Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115). On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3]) and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9]) completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%), immediate survey access (62%), and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%). Most reluctant responders (89%) indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion.
Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.
Cites: Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(31):1-25611809125
PURPOSE: The 5-stage scale currently used to grade tarsal conjunctiva is limited with respect to precisely describing the tissue condition and accurately following small changes. We conducted two preliminary studies to evaluate a new 8-stage, photographic tarsal conjunctival grading system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 145 individuals in Denmark who had successfully worn Acuvue lenses for at least six months on a daily wear basis. Patients wore Acuvue lenses on a two-week replacement schedule and used one of four different care systems (AOSEPT, OPTI-FREE, OXYSEPT, and RENU). Tarsal conjunctiva and lens cleanliness were graded by the investigators. Comfort, vision, and simplicity of care system were rated by the patients. In the second, prospective study, a group of 30 patients who had successfully worn Acuvue lenses and used the OPTI-FREE care system for at least six months were followed for three months to test the repeatability of the new grading system. RESULTS: In the first study, patients using RENU were found to have significantly higher scores than AOSEPT and OPTI-FREE patients when comparing tarsal scores based on the 5-stage scale (P
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format.
In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory.
Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format.
The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Evaluation of preceptors in training programs is essential; however, little research has been performed in the setting of the emergency department (ED). The goal of this pilot study was to determine the validity and reliability of a faculty evaluation instrument-the Emergency Rotation (ER) scale-developed specifically for use in emergency medicine (EM).
A prospective study comparing the ER scale with two alternative faculty evaluation instruments was completed in three of the five EDs affiliated with an EM teaching program, where emergency physicians are members of the clinical teaching faculty. The participants were 18 residents (postgraduate years 1, 2, and 3) who were completing four-week clinical rotations in EM. Residents at the end of the rotation recorded their evaluations of each emergency physician with whom they had clinical encounters on the following evaluation tools: the ER scale, a longer validated scale (Irby), and a global assessment scale (GAS). Domain scores were correlated with the previously validated scale and the GAS to determine validity using a multitrait-multimethod matrix. The reliability of the ER scale was measured using a Chronbach's alpha coefficient.
Forty-eight preceptor evaluations were completed on 29 individual preceptors. The rating of preceptors was high using the ER scale (median: 16 of 20; IQR: 13, 18), Irby (median: 300 of 378; IQR: 267, 321), or GAS (mean: 7.8 of 10; SD: 1.3). Domain scores for each tool were used in the multitrait-multimethod matrix and the correlations between a previously validated tool and the ER scale were found to be high (>0.70) in the various domains. The internal consistency of the ER scale was also high (r = 0.85).
The ER scale appears to be valid and reliable. It performs well when compared with previously psychometrically tested tools. It is a sensible, well-adapted tool for the teaching environment offered by EM.
An index to predict individual postmenopausal bone loss is presented. The index is developed by means of data from a 10-year prospective Norwegian study in which bone mass of the distal forearm was measured annually in 73 women. All the women were 47 years old and premenopausal at inclusion. Independent risk factors for postmenopausal bone loss were identified by applying multivariate regression analysis on anthropometric, biochemical, nutritional, and life-style variables measured at menopause. The analysis identified low body weight, reduced renal phosphate reabsorption, and smoking as significant independent risk factors, and by means of these three factors a predictive index for postmenopausal bone loss was developed. This index was validated by using data from a 10-year longitudinal Dutch study, in which bone mass of the proximal radius was measured annually in 86 women, aged between 49 and 57 years and perimenopausal at inclusion. We defined women with the highest index score as "high-risk persons." According to this definition approximately 25% of the perimenopausal women were classified as high-risk persons, and the estimated sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive power were 36%, 89%, and 74%, respectively, when used to select women with a postmenopausal bone loss above average. We conclude that the index may be helpful in identifying healthy perimenopausal women in whom bone mass measurements should be considered.
Reliable estimation of severity of neurological impairments early after stroke is essential for research and audit of acute stroke care. Obtaining this information prospectively requires significant resources. We wished to assess the reliability of estimating the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) score retrospectively from routine hospital admission records.
Acute stroke admissions to a large urban hospital were examined and had their SSS scored by an experienced physician within 4 h of the examination performed by the medical admissions team. Two examiners (a trained research nurse and a second physician), blinded to the patients' clinical condition, later independently estimated retrospective SSS scores using information documented in the medical admission notes.
Fifty patients were recruited [median age 73 years (interquartile range 61, 79)]. Weighted kappa statistics for agreement between domains of the face-to-face and retrospective SSS were as follows: consciousness 0.73, eye movements 0.60, arm motor power 0.83, hand motor power 0.71, leg motor power 0.81, orientation 0.81, speech 0.80, and facial palsy 0.53. The intraclass correlation coefficient for face-to-face and retrospective SSS composite scores was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.98), p
There has been very little research on the ability of a measure of daily stressors such as the Hassles Scale to predict symptomatology in schizophrenia. We examined this issue in a group of 55 outpatients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia. The patients were assessed on a monthly basis for a minimum of 12 months. The Hassles Scale was used to assess daily stressors and the indices of symptomatology included the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. Longitudinal data on the relationship between Hassles score and symptomatology were analyzed for each patient. Statistically significant correlations of symptoms with stressors for the previous month were found in a greater number of patients than would be expected by chance. There was some reduction in the number of significant correlations when the possible role of prior symptomatology was statistically controlled for.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Measuring ethnicity accurately is important for identifying ethnicity variations in disease risk. We evaluated the degree of agreement and accuracy of maternal ethnicity measured using the new standardized closed-ended geographically based ethnicity question and geographic reclassification of open-ended ethnicity questions from the Canadian census.
A prospectively designed study of respondent agreement of mothers of healthy children aged 1-5 years recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. For the primary analysis, the degree of agreement between geographic reclassification of the Canadian census maternal ethnicity variables and the new geographically based closed-ended maternal ethnicity variable completed by the same respondent was evaluated using a kappa analysis.
Eight hundred sixty-two mothers who completed both measures of ethnicity were included in the analysis. The kappa agreement statistic for the two definitions of maternal ethnicity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.90) indicating good agreement. Overall accuracy of the measurement was 93%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 83% to 100% and 96% to 100%, respectively.
The new standardized closed-ended geographically based ethnicity question represents a practical alternative to widely used open-ended ethnicity questions. It may reduce risk of misinterpretation of ethnicity by respondents, simplify analysis, and improve the accuracy of ethnicity measurement.