The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) Certification is an assessment tool used to provide Canadians with disability tax relief The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a universal framework for defining disability.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DTC and familiarize occupational therapists with the process of mapping measures to the ICF classification system.
Concepts within the DTC were identified and mapped to appropriate ICF codes (Cieza et al., 2005).
The DTC was linked to 45 unique ICF codes (16 Body Functions, 19 Activities and Participation, and 8 Environmental Factors).
The DTC encompasses various domains of the ICF; however, there is no consideration of Personal Factors, Body Structures, and key aspects of Activities and Participation. Refining the DTC to address these aspects will provide an opportunity for fair and just determinations for those who experience disability.
The aims of this study were to translate into Finnish and culturally adapt and study the psycho-metric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0.
The ODI is one of the most commonly reported back-specific disability questionnaires. It is widely used both in clinical work and in medical studies. To date, no validated Finnish version of the ODI version 2.0 has been reported.
The ODI version 2.0 was translated into the Finnish language. A total of 115 patients with back pain, referred by the primary care physician to the outpatient clinic of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, were recruited for this study. The patients answered a questionnaire package that included the Finnish ODI 2.0, Back Pain Questionnaire for Visual Analogue Assessment (Million-VAS), Visual Analogue Scales of back and leg pain (VASback, VASleg), the Depressions Scale, and a question on their subjectively perceived health. The package was administered twice; 2 weeks before and at the arrival to the clinic.
Reproducibility of the ODI was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.94) and the internal consistency was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90). Factor analysis showed that the ODI was loaded on 2 factors, which explained 51% of the total variance. In testing convergent validity ODI correlated with Million-VAS, r = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84); VASback, r = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.32-0.62); and VAS leg, r = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23-0.57).
The Finnish ODI version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument that showed psychometric properties comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it can be used in assessing the disability among Finnish-speaking patients with back pain for both clinical and scientific purposes.
Cross-cultural adaptation and determination of the reliability and validity of PRTEE-S (Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge), a questionnaire for patients with lateral epicondylalgia, in a Swedish population.
In Sweden, as well as in Scandinavia, there is no easy way to evaluate patients' difficulties when they suffer from lateral epicondylitis/epicondylalgia. However, there is a Canadian questionnaire, in English, that could make the evaluation of a patient's pain and functional loss both quick and inexpensive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the questionnaire "Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation" into Swedish (PRTEE-S; "Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge"), and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test.
The Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation was cross-culturally adapted for the Swedish language according to well-established guidelines. Fifty-four patients with unilateral epicondylitis/epicondylalgia were assessed using the PRTEE-S (Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge), the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire, and the Roles & Maudsley score to establish the validity and reliability of the PRTEE-S. Reliability was determined via calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, and validity was calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient.
The test-retest reliability, using the PRTEE-S (Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge) intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.95 and the internal consistency was 0.94. The PRTEE-S correlated well with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (r = 0.88) and the Roles & Maudsley score (r = 0.78).
The PRTEE-S (Patientskattad Utvärdering av Tennisarmbåge) represents a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the subjective outcome in Swedish speaking patients with lateral epicondylitis/epicondylalgia, and can be used in both research and clinical settings.
We present the validation of a translation into Danish of the Oxford ankle foot questionnaire (OxAFQ). We followed the Isis Pros guidelines for translation and pilot-tested the questionnaire on ten children and their parents. Following modifications we tested the validity of the final questionnaire on 82 children (36 boys and 45 girls) with a mean age of 11.7 years (5.5 to 16.0) and their parents. We tested the reliability (repeatability (test-retest), child-parent agreement, internal consistency), feasibility (response rate, time to completion, floor and ceiling effects) and construct validity. The generic child health questionnaire was used for comparison. We found good internal consistency for the physical and the school and play domains, but lower internal consistency for the emotional domain. Overall, good repeatability was found within children and parents as well as agreement between children and parents. The OxAFQ was fast and easy to complete, but we observed a tendency towards ceiling effects in the school and play and emotional domains. To our knowledge this is the first independent validation of the OxAFQ in any language. We found it valid and feasible for use in the clinic to assess the impact on children's lives of foot and/or ankle disorders. It is a valuable research tool.
This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing Enabler. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by means of percentage agreement and kappa statistics. Overall good percentage agreement for the personal and environmental components of the instrument was shown, indicating that the instrument was sufficiently reliable for application in practice and research in the Nordic context. The varying kappa results highlight the need for further study in order to understand the influence of prevalence more profoundly, which should be kept in mind when interpreting the results.
The General Motor Function assessment scale (GMF) measures activity-related dependence, pain and insecurity among older people in frail health. The aim of the present study was to translate the GMF into a Norwegian version (N-GMF) and establish its reliability and clinical feasibility.
The procedure used in translating the GMF was a forward and backward process, testing a convenience sample of 30 frail elderly people with it. The intra-rater reliability tests were performed by three physiotherapists, and the inter-reliability test was done by the same three plus nine independent colleagues. The statistical analyses were performed with a pairwise analysis for intra- and inter-rater reliability, using Cronbach's a, Percentage Agreement (PA), Svensson's rank transformable method and Cohen's ?.
The Cronbach's a coefficients for the different subscales of N-GMF were 0.68 for Dependency, 0.73 for Pain and 0.75 for Insecurity. Intra-rater reliability: The variation in the PA for the total score was 40-70% in Dependence, 30-40% in Pain and 30-60% in Insecurity. The Relative Rank Variant (RV) indicated a modest individual bias and an augmented rank-order agreement coefficient ra of 0.96, 0.96 and 0.99, respectively. The variation in the ? statistics was 0.27-0.62 for Dependence, 0.17-0.35 for Pain and 0.13-0.47 for Insecurity. Inter-rater reliability: The PA between different testers in Dependence, Pain and Insecurity was 74%, 89% and 74%, respectively. The augmented rank-order agreement coefficients were: for Dependence r(a)?=?0.97; for Pain, r(a)?=?0.99; and for Insecurity, r(a)?=?0.99.
The N-GMF is a fairly reliable instrument for use with frail elderly people, with intra-rater and inter-rater reliability moderate in Dependence and slight to fair in Pain and Insecurity. The clinical usefulness was stressed in regard to its main focus, the frail elderly, and for communication within a multidisciplinary team. Implications for Rehabilitation The Norwegian-General Motor Function Assessment Scale (N-GMF) is a reliable instrument. The N-GMF is an instrument for screening and assessment of activity-related dependence, pain and insecurity in frail older people. The N-GMF may be used as a tool of communication in a multidisciplinary team.
The aim was to develop and test a postal questionnaire, the Swedish MYS questionnaire, for validity and reliability in order to survey health states relevant to young persons with stroke.
The questionnaire was designed with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a frame and tested for content validity, face validity and readability by a group of experts including an occupational therapist, a physician, a physiotherapist, a psychologist, a speech and language therapist, a welfare officer and a selected sample of young persons with stroke (n = 15). To test the questionnaire for reliability in terms of stability a test-retest was performed on a selected sample of young persons (n = 20) with stroke.
The questionnaire was found to be valid in terms of content validity, face validity and readability and finally consisted of 59 questions encompassing health states relevant to young persons with stroke. The questionnaire was stable in the test-retest (?; 0.40-1.0) except for two questions and one alternative answer.
The Swedish MYS questionnaire is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used in postal surveys of young persons with stroke except for two questions and one answering alternative, which need to be tested further.
Activity limitation is often persistent after surgically treated carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA).
To describe content and concurrent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Swedish version of the Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) in patients with surgically treated CMC joint OA.
Fifty-eight patients were assessed ten weeks after surgical treatment of CMC joint OA. PSFS, the shorter version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick DASH), EuroQol-5Dimensions (EQ-5D), pain intensity, joint movement of CMC joint, grip and pinch strength were assessed. Classification of activities was done according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Spearman correlation, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa were calculated to assess validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The PSFS was administered twice, 2-3 days apart.
All of the activity limitations stated in the PSFS could be classified according to the activity component in the ICF. Significant correlations for the PSFS were obtained with pain at rest (r(s) = -0.36) and the Quick DASH (r(s) = -0.28). Test-retest reliability was good, ICC (0.79) and the three items of the PSFS correlated 0.69-0.83 with the total score of PSFS.
Content validity was excellent, concurrent validity was low-moderate, as in earlier studies. The PSFS could be a valuable supplement to existing measures in measuring activity limitations in individuals with surgically treated CMC joint OA.
The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) is a multidimensional measurement tool for multiple sclerosis (MS) including a measure of ambulation (Timed 25-foot Walk [TWT]), arm function (Nine-Hole Peg Test [9HPT]) and cognition (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [PASAT]).
To assess the reliability and practice effects in the Finnish version of the MSFC and its components.
Ten relapsing-remitting MS patients and 10 healthy controls underwent five testing sessions with the MSFC over a 4-week period.
The MSFC showed excellent intra- (0.99) and inter-rater (1.0) reliability. The MSFC, especially the 9HPT and the PASAT showed significant practice effects. On the 9HPT the controls remained stable whereas the patients improved their performance; on the PASAT both groups improved.
The MSFC showed excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability although the 9HPT and the PASAT were prone to considerable practice effects.