The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) is a well recognized measuring instrument for pain in English-speaking countries. Several efforts have been made to develop equivalent pain-measuring instruments in other languages. However, the method of translating the English words contained in the MPQ into another language implies that questions about validity may be posed. In Norway three different pain questionnaires have been developed which are inspired by the MPQ. A primary focus for developing the Norwegian Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) was the semantics of pain; the focus of the adapted MPQ was to include commonly used somatosensory Norwegian descriptors of pain in the population of patients with low back pain; the Norwegian McGill Pain Questionnaire (NMPQ) was literally translated into Norwegian to provide a equivalent pain questionnaire to the MPQ for cross-cultural comparisons of pain. Examination of content validity of the adapted MPQ and the translated version of the MPQ is examined by comparing the words in those questionnaires with words collected among Norwegians in the process of developing the NPQ. The findings support the content validity of the adapted MPQ. The NMPQ, however, should be further refined to better fit the semantics of pain in Norway.
Spielberger's (1988) State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory represents a conceptual advance over previous anger measures. It measures both immediate anger experiences and longer term dispositions to experience anger, as well as modes of anger expression. In American samples, the inventory has been shown to be both internally consistent and conceptually valid. This study presents initial data on a Russian version of the inventory. Our subjects were 120 students from St. Petersburg University and 31 psychiatric patients from the St. Petersburg Top Security Hospital. The results provide initial support for Spielberger's factorial model of anger in a Russian sample. All of the scales, with the exception of Anger-In, showed good alpha coefficients, and the means were generally similar to those found in American subgroups. Russian men scored higher on Anger-Out than did Russian women. Determination of subgroup norms in larger samples will allow us to explore further the cross-national similarity of anger in Russia and America.
This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.
The Empathy Quotient (EQ) is a self-report that was developed to measure the cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. We further evaluated its validity in 2 studies.
The psychometric qualities of the French version of the EQ, and its correspondence with 2 other measures of empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and the Empathy Scale of the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy Questionnaire), and with dimensions of the emotional state (depression and anxiety), were evaluated in a sample of 410 students (201 men and 209 women). Second, the clinical validity of the EQ was investigated in participants expected to have dysfunctional empathy. For this purpose, EQ scores of 16 people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were collected.
The EQ showed satisfying internal, convergent, test-retest and discriminant validity. The confirmatory factorial analyses suggested a 3-factor structure offered a good fit to the data. The women's superiority in empathy was replicated. As expected, the ASD EQ scores were very low.
This study provides further evidence that the EQ is reliable in this population and should be recommended to estimate empathy problems, notably in individuals with troubled interpersonal interaction patterns.
We used general population data (n = 4084) to examine data completeness, response consistency, tests of scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36 Health Survey. We compared traditional multitrait scaling analyses to analyses using polychoric correlations and Spearman correlations. The frequency of missing values was low, except for elderly people and people with lower levels of education. Response consistency was high and compared well with results for the U.S. SF-36. For respondents with computable scales in all eight domains, scaling assumptions (item internal consistency, item discriminant validity, equal item-own scale correlations, and equal variances) were satisfactory in the total sample and in all subgroups. The SF-36 could discriminate between levels of health in all subgroups, but there were skewness, kurtosis, and ceiling effects in many subgroups (elderly people and people with chronic diseases excepted). Concerning correlation methods, we found interesting differences indicating advantages of using methods that do not assume a normal distribution of answers as an addition to traditional methods.
We examined the possible universality of Spielberger's (1988) model of anger by validating a Russian State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In Eckhardt, Kassinove, Tsytsarev, and Sukhodolsky (1995), support was found for all STAXI factors except anger-in, using students from St. Petersburg State University. In the present study, 346 students from Russian high schools and the Pavlov Medical School served as subjects. Using new items, we found strong support for the factor structure hypothesized by Spielberger. All scales showed good to excellent alphas, and there was substantial similarity of the current means with results from the earlier study. The Russian samples, however, showed a lower level of state anger. The data support the possibility that state anger consists of two subscales, a simple experience and an experience combined with an action tendency. Trait anger occurs as a general temperament or as a reaction to specific triggers. It is positively related to anger-out and negatively related to anger control. Future studies can use this instrument to evaluate the stability of anger in Russian speaking populations, and to assess anger experiences and expression in response to specific triggers.
The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire is a self-administered region-specific outcome instrument developed to measure upper-extremity disability and symptoms. The DASH consists mainly of a 30-item disability/symptom scale. We performed cross-cultural adaptation of the DASH to Swedish, using a process that included double forward and backward translations, expert and lay review, as well as field-testing to achieve linguistic and conceptual equivalence. The Swedish version's reliability and validity were then evaluated in 176 patients with upper-extremity conditions. The patients completed the DASH and SF-12 generic health questionnaire before elective surgery or physical therapy. Internal consistency of the DASH was high (Cronbach alpha 0.96). Test-retest reliability, evaluated in a subgroup of 67 patients who completed the DASH on two occasions, with a median interval of 7 days, was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92). Construct validity was shown by a positive correlation of DASH scores with the SF-12 scores (worse upper-extremity disability correlating with worse general health), stronger correlation with the SF-12 physical than with the mental health component, correlation of worse DASH scores with worse self-rated global health, and ability to discriminate among conditions known to differ in severity. The Swedish version of the DASH is a reliable and valid instrument that can provide a standardized measure of patient-centered outcomes in upper-extremity musculoskeletal conditions.
The translation and adaptation of English instruments to be used with populations speaking other languages is an important and complex process which is attracting increased attention in nursing and health-related research. The aim of this article is to describe the translation process of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) for testing in Norway. The instrument is a 28-item-questionnaire with a Likert-type (1-5) scale ranging from the descriptions "strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5)". The aim of the instrument is to measure the efficiency of, and satisfaction with the supervision received from the nurse students' perspective. The NCFQ questionnaire was translated in six phases. The translation process was conducted systematically by applying the three methods described in the literature: the methods of forward-translation, back-translation and comparison followed by an empirical study (pilot test). The methods were chosen to test the quality of translation, establish semantic equivalence of the translated instrument and to estimate the cross-cultural relevance of the instrument. The translation process has given prerequisites to use the NCFQ questionnaire in a larger study and a possibility to compare different models for supervision of nursing students in the clinical part of their education.