Socio-hygienic study of children with acute craniocerebral injuries carried out in the Kalinin district of St. Petersburg helped distinguish a part of general sequence of therapeutic measures in such injuries. This will optimize the development of medical and economic standard with due consideration for the treatment practice and its relation to medical science.
School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years.
A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home.
At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included.
A total of 254 school lunches.
A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish.
The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.
The present paper focuses on the measurement of health literacy (HL), which is an important determinant of health and health behaviours. HL starts to develop in childhood and adolescence; hence, there is a need for instruments to monitor HL among younger age groups. These instruments are still rare. The aim of the project reported here was, therefore, to develop a brief, multidimensional, theory-based instrument to measure subjective HL among school-aged children.
The development of the instrument covered four phases: item generation based on a conceptual framework; a pilot study ( n = 405); test-retest ( n = 117); and construction of the instrument ( n = 3853). All the samples were taken from Finnish 7th and 9th graders.
Initially, 65 items were generated, of which 32 items were selected for the pilot study. After item reduction, the instrument contained 16 items. The test-retest phase produced estimates of stability. In the final phase a 10-item instrument was constructed, referred to as Health Literacy for School-Aged Children (HLSAC). The instrument exhibited a high Cronbach alpha (0.93), and included two items from each of the five predetermined theoretical components (theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, critical thinking, self-awareness, citizenship).
The iterative and validity-driven development process made it possible to construct a brief multidimensional HLSAC instrument. Such instruments are suitable for large-scale studies, and for use with children and adolescents. Validation will require further testing for use in other countries.
Two groups of children in the cities of Anadyr and Pevek in the Chukotka Region of the Soviet Far East were administered a Russian translation of the Children's Health Locus of Control Scale in July, 1991. Results were analyzed to assess the similarities between response patterns among the Russian children and those found in American children. The analyses revealed a consistency in the data suggesting both face and theoretical validity of the Scale. It appears that the underlying mediating variable related to the children's perceived control over their health is operating in this Region of Russia in much the same way that it does in the United States.
Department of Sport, Food and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Sogndal, Box 133, 6851, Sogndal, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Knowledge of the reproducibility of domain-specific accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) estimates are a prerequisite to conduct high-quality epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of objectively measured PA level in children during school hours, afternoon hours, weekdays, weekend days, and total leisure time over two different seasons.
Six hundred seventy six children from the Active Smarter Kids study conducted in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, were monitored for 7 days by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) during January-February and April-May 2015. Reproducibility was estimated week-by-week using intra-class correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement (LoA).
When controlling for season, reliability (ICC) was 0.51-0.66 for a 7-day week, 0.55-0.64 for weekdays, 0.11-0.43 for weekend days, 0.57-0.63 for school hours, 0.42-0.53 for afternoon hours, and 0.42-0.61 for total leisure time. LoA across models approximated a factor of 1.3-2.5 standard deviations of the sample PA levels. 3-6 weeks of monitoring were required to achieve a reliability of 0.80 across all domains but weekend days, which required 5-32 weeks.
Reproducibility of PA during leisure time and weekend days were lower than for school hours and weekdays, and estimates were lower when analyzed using a week-by-week approach over different seasons compared to previous studies relying on a single short monitoring period. To avoid type 2-errors, researchers should consider increasing the monitoring period beyond a single 7-day period in future studies.
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT021324947 . Registered on 7 April 2014.
Tailored primary prophylaxis (TPP) is a reduced-intensity treatment program for hemophiliacs with the goal of preventing arthropathy. Our primary aim was to evaluate the joint outcomes of treated subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and physical examination as outcome measures.
Ankles, elbows and knees (index joints) of 24 subjects (median [range] age at start of therapy, 1.6 [1-2.5] years) with severe hemophilia A enrolled in the Canadian Hemophilia Primary Prophylaxis Study (CHPS) were examined by MRI at a median age of 8.8 years (range 6.2-11.5 years). Subjects were treated with TPP using a recombinant factor VIII concentrate, starting once weekly and escalating in frequency and dose according to frequency of bleeding.
Osteochondral changes (cartilage loss/subchondral bone damage) were detected in 9% (13/140) of the index joints and 50% (12/24) of study subjects. Osteochondral changes were restricted to joints with a history of clinically reported joint bleeding. Soft tissue changes were detected in 31% (20/65) of index joints with no history of clinically reported bleeding (ankles 75% (12/16); elbows 19% (6/32); and knees 12% (2/17)). In these apparently 'bleed free' index joints hemosiderin deposition was detected by MRI in 26% (17/65) of joints (ankles 63% (10/16); elbows 16% (5/32), and knees 12% (2/17)).
TPP did not completely avoid the development of MRI-detected structural joint changes in hemophilic boys in this prospective study. A longer period of follow-up is required for assessment of the longitudinal course of these early changes in hemophilic arthropathy, detected using a sensitive imaging technique (MRI).
In spite of a growth in cognitive conceptualizations of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, relatively little has been done to extend such concepts to childhood. This study investigated the relationship between responsibility attitudes and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in normal children. A measure of responsibility attitudes in children was constructed on the basis of Salkovskis' Responsibility Attitudes Scale. This measure (Responsibility Attitudes Scale for Children) was administered together with the Leyton Obsessive Inventory Child Version and the Children's Depression Inventory to a sample of two hundred and two 10-14-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. The responsibility measure correlated moderately and similarly with the Leyton Obsessive Inventory Child Version and the Children's Depression Inventory. In a hierarchical regression analysis predicting Leyton Obsessive Inventory Child Version scores, age and gender were entered in the equation first, followed by Children's Depression Inventory scores and, finally, Responsibility Attitudes Scale for Children scores. It was shown that Responsibility Attitudes Scale for Children scores added significantly to the prediction of Leyton Obsessive Inventory Child Version over and above the other variables. It is concluded that the study of the role of responsibility attitudes in children's obsessive-compulsive symptoms is at least promising.
Developmental psychopathology stands poised at the close of the 20th century on the horns of a major scientific dilemma. The essence of this dilemma lies in the contrast between its heuristically rich open system concepts on the one hand, and the closed system paradigm it adopted from mainstream psychology for investigating those models on the other. Many of the research methods, assessment strategies, and data analytic models of psychology's paradigm are predicated on closed system assumptions and explanatory models. Thus, they are fundamentally inadequate for studying humans, who are unparalleled among open systems in their wide ranging capacities for equifinal and multifinal functioning. Developmental psychopathology faces two challenges in successfully negotiating the developmentalist's dilemma. The first lies in recognizing how the current paradigm encourages research practices that are antithetical to developmental principles, yet continue to flourish. I argue that the developmentalist's dilemma is sustained by long standing, mutually enabling weaknesses in the paradigm's discovery methods and scientific standards. These interdependent weaknesses function like a distorted lens on the research process by variously sustaining the illusion of theoretical progress, obscuring the need for fundamental reforms, and both constraining and misguiding reform efforts. An understanding of how these influences arise and take their toll provides a foundation and rationale for engaging the second challenge. The essence of this challenge will be finding ways to resolve the developmentalist's dilemma outside the constraints of the existing paradigm by developing indigenous research strategies, methods, and standards with fidelity to the complexity of developmental phenomena.
Personality is generally considered to be biologically founded in temperament, and temperamental qualities have proven to be relatively stable across childhood and into adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, ). Temperament predicts important developmental outcomes such as academic performance (Muris, ), and social functioning (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie & Reiser, ), and it has also been found to be strongly related to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children (Muris, Meesters & Blijlevens, ; Nigg, ). To allow for the possibility of making early interventions, identification of potential risk factors (such as temperamental dispositions) is of great importance (Rettew & McKee, ). As temperament is multidimensional and has many different manifestations, parents and teachers are valuable sources in providing information about children's temperament (Rothbart & Bates, ; Tackett, Slobodskaya, Mar et al., ), and caregiver questionnaires are frequently used in child personality research. However, such questionnaires are only useful if their reliability and validity have been established. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds, Kieras, Rueda & Rothbart, ), which focuses specifically on the ages between 7 and 11 years. The TMCQ is the least validated of the Rothbart measures, and although reliability data have been presented, together with some validity data, for a computerized self-report version of the questionnaire (Simonds & Rothbart, ), information about the reliability and validity for the caregiver version is scant. In the present paper, we report such data for a Swedish sample.