School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years.
A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home.
At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included.
A total of 254 school lunches.
A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish.
The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.
The present paper focuses on the measurement of health literacy (HL), which is an important determinant of health and health behaviours. HL starts to develop in childhood and adolescence; hence, there is a need for instruments to monitor HL among younger age groups. These instruments are still rare. The aim of the project reported here was, therefore, to develop a brief, multidimensional, theory-based instrument to measure subjective HL among school-aged children.
The development of the instrument covered four phases: item generation based on a conceptual framework; a pilot study ( n = 405); test-retest ( n = 117); and construction of the instrument ( n = 3853). All the samples were taken from Finnish 7th and 9th graders.
Initially, 65 items were generated, of which 32 items were selected for the pilot study. After item reduction, the instrument contained 16 items. The test-retest phase produced estimates of stability. In the final phase a 10-item instrument was constructed, referred to as Health Literacy for School-Aged Children (HLSAC). The instrument exhibited a high Cronbach alpha (0.93), and included two items from each of the five predetermined theoretical components (theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, critical thinking, self-awareness, citizenship).
The iterative and validity-driven development process made it possible to construct a brief multidimensional HLSAC instrument. Such instruments are suitable for large-scale studies, and for use with children and adolescents. Validation will require further testing for use in other countries.
On the basis of the restraint theory and the continuum hypothesis of eating disorders, the objective of this paper was twofold. First, subjects who, on the basis of items from the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) which are generated from DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) were identified. Second, differences in scale scores between a case group and a non-case group were tested, and case group distribution of the two self-report questionnaires Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-12) and Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) was compared as a means for investigating the sensitivity of the instruments in detecting eating disorder cases. In a classroom setting 224 8th-grade female students from 5 schools in western Norway completed the questionnaires. The responses to the questionnaires were analysed by case group and instrument/subscales by using the t test, Cohen's d-values, eta squared statistic, point biserial correlation, and two-way ANOVA. No BN cases and 10 AN cases were identified. AN cases scored significantly higher on all measures of eating problems than normal subjects and differed most from non-cases on the "dieting" dimension. Clinical implications are discussed in the light of screening.
Two groups of children in the cities of Anadyr and Pevek in the Chukotka Region of the Soviet Far East were administered a Russian translation of the Children's Health Locus of Control Scale in July, 1991. Results were analyzed to assess the similarities between response patterns among the Russian children and those found in American children. The analyses revealed a consistency in the data suggesting both face and theoretical validity of the Scale. It appears that the underlying mediating variable related to the children's perceived control over their health is operating in this Region of Russia in much the same way that it does in the United States.
Many new mothers discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. Researchers have shown that maternal confidence is an important factor in the continuation of breastfeeding. The purpose of this methodological study was to develop and conduct preliminary psychometric assessment of an instrument to measure confidence in new breastfeeding mothers. Using self-efficacy theory as a conceptual framework, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) was developed and content validity was judged by a panel of experts and through interviews with experienced breastfeeding mothers. Following a pilot test, the revised BSES was assessed with 130 in-hospital breastfeeding mothers for reliability and validity, including internal consistency, principal components factor analysis, comparison of contrasted groups, and correlations with measures of similar constructs. Support for predictive validity was demonstrated with positive correlations between BSES scores and infant feeding patterns at 6 weeks postpartum. Following further testing, this instrument may be used to identify new mothers with low breastfeeding confidence who are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding.
The authors addressed the culture specificity of indigenous personality constructs, the generalizability of the 5-factor model (FFM), and the incremental validity of indigenous measures in a collectivistic culture. Filipino college students (N = 508) completed 3 indigenous inventories and the Filipino version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). On the basis of the factor and regression analyses, they concluded that (a) most Philippine dimensions are well encompassed by the FFM and thus may not be very culture specific: (b) a few indigenous constructs are less well accounted for by the FFM: these constructs are not unknown in Western cultures, but they may be particularly salient or composed somewhat differently in the Philippines; (c) the structure of the NEO-PI-R FFM replicates well in the Philippines: and (d) Philippine inventories add modest incremental validity beyond the FFM in predicting selected culture-relevant criteria.
The present study compared the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE; 16.0) and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; 6.0) and investigated the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the EDE. Fifty-eight university women aged 19-41 years (mean BMI?=?23) were assessed with the EDE and EDE-Q. Satisfactory internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were demonstrated for the Norwegian translation of the EDE. Generally high convergent validity between the EDE and EDE-Q was found, with correlations ranging from 0.60 (Eating Concern) to 0.86 (Weight Concern). Agreement for OBEs and vomiting were excellent, while driven exercising generated lower levels of convergence. Consistent with prior studies, the EDE-Q generated significantly higher levels of psychopathology, although effect sizes were small. Owing to the significantly higher EDE-Q scores, it is ill advised to administer these two instruments interchangeably, as this may fail to produce meaningful data.
This validation study assessed the degree of confidence that can be placed on inferences from depressive symptoms among adolescents, based on a 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). This short version of the scale had been developed for application in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth and we refer to it as the CES-D-12-NLSCY. The major data source for the present validation study was a 2002/2003 survey of 12,990 students in junior and senior high school in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for two different proxy gold standards yielded adequate areas under the curve (AUCs) of .84 and .80, allowing us to establish cut points for three categories of depressive symptoms in the general adolescent population: Minimal (CES-D-12-NLSCY total score 0 to 11), Somewhat Elevated (total score 12 to 20) and Very Elevated (total score 21 to 36). The CES-D-12-NLSCY was found to have acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach=s alpha .85). All but one of the 12 items of the CES-D-12-NLSCY were found to have acceptable discrimination ability. The prevalence of Minimal, Somewhat and Very Elevated depressive symptoms in the adolescent student population of the Atlantic provinces was estimated to be 72.3, 19.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. A further 2.6 percent of students who responded to fewer than 11 items of the scale were classified as Indeterminate with regards to depressive symptom category. The major threat to the accuracy of the CES-D-12-NLSCY is its lack of inquiry about irritability, which is a key symptom of depression in youth.
The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and factor structure of the Finnish version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire, a measure which examines cognitive and motivational functions of imagery. The final sample comprised 231 participants drawn from 34 sports and ranging in age from 14 to 49 years (M = 20.9, SD = 5.8). Internal consistency and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to evaluate the reliability and factorial validity of the scale. Fit indices and modification data generated from examining the 30-item five-factor model were equivocal, suggesting minor amendment and recategorization of several items rather than major adjustment to the proposed latent factor structure. Cronbach coefficients alpha indicated the scale is reliable. Overall, these results provide positive additional support for the claim that the Sport Imagery Questionnaire has a reproducible factor structure and is a reliable test for measuring imagery use in Finnish athletes.
The aim of this study was to develop the "Sepedi-toets vir Spraakverstaanbaarheid" to objectively evaluate the speech intelligibility of the client and to give appropriate phonetic information. This study evolved from the present need for evaluation mechanisms and therapeutic services in the indigenous African languages. The words used in the test had to conform to the requirements of certain phonetic criteria. Words and sentences of differing lengths were included. The procedures followed by the test administrator were different for mother tongue speakers than those for non-mother tongue speakers. After the compilation of the test it was applied to four dysarthria speakers. Upon execution of the test it was evident that differences in judgment of speech intelligibility exist between mother tongue and non-mother tongue speakers. Useful phonetic information was obtained through the qualitative analysis of the speech productions. It appears that the "Sepedi-toets vir Spraakverstaanbaarheid" can be used in the clinical environment to obtain a more objective evaluation of the client.