Personality is generally considered to be biologically founded in temperament, and temperamental qualities have proven to be relatively stable across childhood and into adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, ). Temperament predicts important developmental outcomes such as academic performance (Muris, ), and social functioning (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie & Reiser, ), and it has also been found to be strongly related to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children (Muris, Meesters & Blijlevens, ; Nigg, ). To allow for the possibility of making early interventions, identification of potential risk factors (such as temperamental dispositions) is of great importance (Rettew & McKee, ). As temperament is multidimensional and has many different manifestations, parents and teachers are valuable sources in providing information about children's temperament (Rothbart & Bates, ; Tackett, Slobodskaya, Mar et al., ), and caregiver questionnaires are frequently used in child personality research. However, such questionnaires are only useful if their reliability and validity have been established. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds, Kieras, Rueda & Rothbart, ), which focuses specifically on the ages between 7 and 11 years. The TMCQ is the least validated of the Rothbart measures, and although reliability data have been presented, together with some validity data, for a computerized self-report version of the questionnaire (Simonds & Rothbart, ), information about the reliability and validity for the caregiver version is scant. In the present paper, we report such data for a Swedish sample.
The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) was developed to measure the intensity of grief after the death of a close person. It consists of two scales: TRIG I (past behaviors) and TRIG II (present feelings). Because of inconsistencies in previous validations, the instrument needs to be further validated, hence the aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the TRIG in a sample of bereaved family caregivers in Sweden. The TRIG was translated to Swedish according to standard principles, and 129 bereaved family caregivers completed the questionnaire. Parallel analysis was used to decide the number of factors to extract, followed by confirmatory factor analysis. An ordinal version of Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate the internal consistency of the scales. Construct validity was tested against the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The factor analyses resulted in one factor being retained for both scales. The internal consistency was excellent (a?>?0.9) for both scales. Construct validity was supported by strong correlations between TRIG I and TRIG II as well as moderate correlations between the TRIG scales and HADS. In conclusion, the TRIG has sound psychometric qualities and the two scales should be treated as unidimensional measures of grief. Hence, the instrument is suited to be used in the context of palliative care.
Craving is a clinically important feature of alcohol use disorders (AUD), representing a diagnostic criterion as well as a target for treatment. The Desire for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ) is a widely used scale to measure craving. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Shortened-DAQ.
The English DAQ was translated into Swedish and back translated to English. Individuals with a diagnosis of AUD (n=118) participated in a laboratory experiment comprising presentation of alcohol and non-alcohol cues, as well as consumption of an alcoholic drink, with the aim of exploring changes in the craving responses following pharmacological treatment for AUD. Subjective craving across the experimental conditions was recorded using Shortened-DAQ and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The psychometric analysis of the Shortened-DAQ investigated some important aspects of reliability, validity and the factor solution using principal components analysis.
Cronbach's alphas were above 0.8 across all sessions, the test-retest correlations were statistically significant. In the alcohol cue session the Shortened-DAQ total score was significantly greater compared to the non-alcohol cue session, and correlated significantly with the VAS craving item across all sessions. The principal component analysis resulted in two significant factors comprised of (1) Alcohol desire and reinforcement and (2) Ability to control drinking. No difference in psychometric properties between treatment and placebo groups were found.
In future clinical studies on alcohol craving responses in Swedish patients with AUD, we suggest the use of the Swedish Shortened-DAQ, due to its comparably swift administration and overall acceptable psychometric properties.
The thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) method is used to measure the overall coagulation capacity in plasma. However, the method is still considered to be a research tool, mainly because of its' lack of standardization.
Our study aimed to further raise the standardization level for the TGA-CAT method by evaluating a detailed standardization protocol and three reference plasmas' (RP)s ability to normalize results.
Six Nordic centres participated in the study, and with input from all centres a detailed laboratory standardization protocol based on the TGA-CAT manual of the manufacturer was established. Three types of plasma, hypo-,normal and hypercoagulable plasma were assessed. Three commercial lyophilized RPs were used for normalization of data. All samples were aliquoted at the Malmö centre and sent frozen at -20°C to participating centres.
Before normalization, all results under all testing conditions showed inter-laboratory coefficient of variability of 10% or lower except for endogenous thrombin potential (12%) and peak (14%) in hypo-plasma with 1 pmol/L tissue factor as starting agent. Successful normalization, improving variability in results, was obtained with two of the three evaluated RPs (HemosIL RP and Affinity RP).
With our standardization concept, we were able to produce TGA-CAT results as robust as standard coagulation assays used in the routine laboratories. Normalization with HemosIL RP may be considered in populations with low or unknown coagulability, while when analysing plasma samples from populations where hypercoagulability is known or suspected, normalization with Affinity RP may be preferred.
Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24?h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples.
The reproducibility of the new AR metabolites (DHCA, DHBA-glycine and DHPPTA) was investigated in 4 repeated samples over a period of 2 wk in spot urine from 40 Swedish men and women enroled in the SCAPIS-study, after adjustment of creatinine. Metabolite concentrations were correlated with total whole grain intake estimated during the same period.
The medium-term reproducibility determined for DHCA, DHPPTA and DHBA-glycine varied from moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient?=?0.35-0.67). Moreover, DHCA and DHBA-glycine were independently associated with self-reported total WG intake (ß?=?0.18, P?=?0.08 and ß?=?0.18, P?=?0.02, respectively) and all metabolites except for DHPPA were higher among women.
This study supports the idea of using AR metabolites in one or several spot urine samples as biomarkers of whole grain intake. These findings need to be confirmed in different populations.
Pain assessment in intensive care is challenging, especially when the patients are sedated. Sedated patients who cannot communicate verbally are at risk of suffering from pain that remains unnoticed without careful pain assessment. Some tools have been developed for use with sedated patients. The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) and the Nonverbal Adult Pain Assessment Scale (NVPS) have shown promising psychometric qualities. We translated and culturally adapted these three tools for the Finnish intensive care environment. The objective of this feasibility study was to test the reliability of the three pain assessment tools translated into Finnish for use with sedated intensive care patients.
Six sedated intensive care patients were videorecorded while they underwent two procedures: an endotracheal suctioning was the nociceptive procedure, and the non-nociceptive treatment was creaming of the feet. Eight experts assessed the patients' pain by observing video recordings. They assessed the pain using four instruments: the BPS, the CPOT and the NVPS, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) served as a control instrument. Each expert assessed the patients' pain at five measurement points: (1) right before the procedure, (2) during the endotracheal suctioning, (3) during rest (4) during the creaming of the feet, and (5) after 20 min of rest. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the tools were evaluated. After 6 months, the video recordings were evaluated for testing the test-retest reliability.
Using the BPS, the CPOT, the NVPS and the NRS, 960 assessments were obtained. Internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied greatly with all the instruments. The lowest values were seen at those measurement points where the pain scores were 0. The highest scores were achieved after the endotracheal suctioning at rest: for the BPS, the score was 0.86; for the CPOT, 0.96; and for the NVPS, 0.90. The inter-rater reliability using the Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) tests showed the best results after the painful procedure and during the creaming. The scores were slightly lower for the BPS compared to the CPOT and the NVPS. The test-retest results using the Bland-Altman plots show that all instruments gave similar results.
To our knowledge, this is the first time all three behavioral pain assessment tools have been evaluated in the same study in a language other than English or French. All three tools had good internal consistency, but it was better for the CPOT and the NVPS compared to the BPS. The inter-rater reliability was best for the NVPS. The test-retest reliability was strongest for the CPOT. The three tools proved to be reliable for further testing in clinical use.
There is a need for feasible, valid and reliable pain assessment tools for pain assessment of sedated ICU patients in Finland. This was the first time the psychometric properties of these tools were tested in Finnish use. Based on the results, all three instruments could be tested further in clinical use for sedated ICU patients in Finland.