Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a prominent role in glaciological studies for the mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. By providing a time snapshot of glacier geometry, DEMs are crucial for most glacier evolution modelling studies, but are also important for cryospheric modelling in general. We present a historical medium-resolution DEM and orthophotographs that consistently cover the entire surroundings and margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet 1978-1987. About 3,500 aerial photographs of Greenland are combined with field surveyed geodetic ground control to produce a 25?m gridded DEM and a 2?m black-and-white digital orthophotograph. Supporting data consist of a reliability mask and a photo footprint coverage with recording dates. Through one internal and two external validation tests, this DEM shows an accuracy better than 10?m horizontally and 6?m vertically while the precision is better than 4?m. This dataset proved successful for topographical mapping and geodetic mass balance. Other uses include control and calibration of remotely sensed data such as imagery or InSAR velocity maps.
Comment On: Science. 2012 Aug 3;337(6094):569-7322859486
Comment On: Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):396-40026672555
The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) is an attempt to capture and measure coping strategies that people use. The instrument had not previously been translated into Swedish. The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the MDMQ.
A Swedish translation was performed and back-translated. A group of five pilot readers evaluated content validity. The translated questionnaire was tested among 735 patients, healthcare workers, healthcare students and teachers. A parallel analysis (PA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed.
An initial EFA with a four-factor solution showed a low concordance with the original 22-item four-factor model with a very low Cronbach's alpha in one of the dimensions. However, a second EFA with a three-factor solution showed a good model fit for the Swedish translation of the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ-S) with a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha. A CFA showed a goodness of fit after deleting six items.
After testing the MDMQ-S, we found support for validity and reliability of the instrument. We found the 16-item version of MDMQ-S to be satisfactory concerning the subscales vigilance, procrastination and buck-passing. However, we found no support that the hypervigilance dimension could be measured by the MDMQ-S.
Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a valuable health indicator within public health. As such, it is a significant outcome variable of health promotion efforts. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to evaluate health promotion interventions and to assess levels of HL in a population. One of the few measurements of communicative and critical HL is the Japanese Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale (C & C HL scale). To make it possible to use this instrument in Sweden, the C & C HL scale was translated into Swedish and different aspects of validity, including test-retest reliability, of the translated version were tested.
After translation and back-translation, The Swedish C & C HL scale was tested for content validity and test-retest reliability. Data were collected from a committee consisting of public health experts and bilingual people, and from a test group of 35 persons.
The Swedish C & C HL scale was understandable and showed evidence of content validity. The test-retest confirmed that it was stable over time, percentage agreements for the items ranging from 66% to 89% (M = 74%).
The Swedish C & C HL scale is equivalent to the Japanese C & C HL scale in terms of language and content. The items cover the major aspects of communicative and critical HL and are understandable and stable over time, i.e., reliable.
The field of sleep disorders medicine is facing enormous challenges as it strives to gain recognition from the medical profession, the public and government. One of these challenges is to ensure that limited resources for diagnosis are used wisely. The authors argue that the standards for polysomnography developed by the Canadian Sleep Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society (see pages 1673 to 1678 of this issue) will go a long way toward ensuring that this expensive resource is used prudently. In the mean-time, more research is needed to determine valid measures of the impact of sleep disorders and to establish the reliability of different diagnostic methods.
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Aug;154(2 Pt 1):279-898756795
Comment In: CMAJ. 1997 Jun 15;156(12):1698-9, 17019220920
Comment On: CMAJ. 1996 Dec 15;155(12):1673-88976332
This study measured the validity of work histories obtained by interview with 84 female workers and examined specific factors which influence such validity. This is the first validation of work histories collected by interviews with women. The validity of each interview was assessed over a period of 29 years, from 1955 to 1983. The information provided by the worker was compared annually to job information registered in public and union records. On the average, interviews yielded the correct information (either employer's name or nonworking year) for 81% of the person years of these subjects. However, there was a time effect; the average validity score for recent employment (1972-1983) was 89%, while that for employment in the more distant past (1955-1971) was 74%. Furthermore, workers who had fewer jobs, had longer durations of employment, and were non-French speaking had higher validity scores. Most of these findings are consistent with previous studies conducted among male respondents.
The regulations of the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) and the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) allow linkage of the registries for evaluation of completeness and validity of data.
Data on patients registered as having C18 (colon cancer), C19-C21 (cancer of the rectum, rectosigmoid junction or anus), C33-C34 (cancer of the lungs or trachea), C50 (breast cancer), C61 (prostate cancer) or C66-C68 (cancer of the bladder, ureter or urethra) were obtained from NPR 2008 and compared with data from CRN.
81 % of patients registered in NPR as having colon cancer were registered with the same diagnosis in CRN. Corresponding figures were 94 % for breast cancer (women), 97 % for prostate cancer, 82 % for cancer of the rectum, rectosigmoid junction or anus, 93 % for urinary tract cancer and 90 % for cancer of the lungs or trachea. In cases where NPR codes and CRN diagnoses did not match, a related diagnosis was often registered in the CRN.
The agreement between the data in NPR and CRN is relatively good for the diagnoses included in the study. The NPR codes are less precise for colon and rectal cancer than for the other major types of cancer. Regular exchange of data between the registries will further improve the quality of the data.
To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects.