To compare two versions of a questionnaire translated using forward-backward (FB) translation and dual-panel (DP) methodologies regarding preference of wording and psychometric properties.
The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life instrument was adapted into Swedish by two independent groups using FB and DP methodologies, respectively. Seven out of thirty resulting items were identical. Nonidentical items were evaluated regarding preference of wording by 23 bilingual Swedes, 50 people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 2 lay panels (n = 11). Psychometric performance was assessed from a postal survey of 200 people with RA randomly assigned to complete one version first and the other 2 weeks later.
Preference did not differ among the 23 bilinguals (P = 0.196), whereas patients and lay people preferred DP over FB item versions (P
Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden - firstname.lastname@example.org.
A previous small-sample (N.=150) Rasch analysis of the Swedish modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS) suggested problems regarding response categories and redundant items that need confirmation in larger samples with more severe strokes.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the SwePASS in patients with acute stroke.
A multicenter, cross-sectional study.
Two stroke units in Western Sweden.
The study cohort included 250 consecutive inpatients undergoing rehabilitation after acute stroke.
The SwePASS assessments were performed once within the first four days after admission to the stroke units. The data were analyzed according to the Rasch measurement model regarding targeting, model fit, reliability, response category function, local dependence and differential item functioning.
Postural control of 250 patients (median age, 76.5 years) was assessed with the SwePASS within median of two days after admission to the stroke units. The SwePASS covered a continuum of different levels of postural control, but had suboptimal targeting with insufficient representation of lower and higher levels of postural control. The reliability was high, the item fit statistics were generally acceptable and there was no differential item functioning by sex, age and stroke localization. However, response categories did not function as expected for four of the 12 SwePASS items and five items exhibited local dependency.
The SwePASS exhibited several promising measurement properties. To improve the scale, poor targeting, illogical response categories and local dependency should be addressed.
The SwePASS provides valuable clinical information regarding postural control in the acute phase after stroke.
The Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition II (SCREEN II) Questionnaire assesses nutritional risk among elderly people living at home. Our aim was to produce a Swedish language version of the SCREEN II and to examine response patterns, data completeness and the relationship between malnutrition and general health.
The SCREEN II was translated into Swedish using dual panel methodology, and then followed up with field test interviews of 24 seniors (median age, 83 years). We used the survey data (n = 565) to assess item and score distribution, missing responses, and the relationship to the subject's general and nutritional health.
The Swedish SCREEN II was considered easy to understand, respond to, and relevant (n = 21; 88% of subjects found it so in all three respects) and its median completion time was 5 minutes. The level of survey item data completeness was 94-99%, and 82% of surveys had computable total scores. Of those subjects with completed forms, 35% had no nutritional risk; 35% had moderate risk; and 30% were at high risk. The malnutrition risk increased with poorer perceived health.
Our study results are similar to those using previous screen ii versions, indicating that the scale adaptation was successful and providing initial support for use of the Swedish SCREEN II questionnaire.
Studies have shown that family carers who feel more prepared for the caregiver role tend to have more favorable experiences. Valid and reliable methods are needed to identify family carers who may be less prepared for the role of supporting a person who needs palliative care.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the original English version and a Swedish version of the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale (PCS).
The sample (n = 674) was taken from four different intervention studies from Australia and Sweden, all focused on improving family carers' feelings of preparedness. Family carers of patients receiving palliative home care were selected, and baseline data were used. The measurement properties of the PCS were evaluated using the Rasch model.
Both the English and Swedish versions of the PCS exhibit sound measurement properties according to the Rasch model. The items in the PCS captured different levels of preparedness. The response categories were appropriate and corresponded to the level of preparedness. No significant differential item functioning for age and sex was detected. Three items demonstrated differential item functioning by language but did not impact interpretation of scores. Reliability was high (>0.90) according to the Person Separation Index.
The PCS is valid for use among family carers in palliative care. Data provide support for its use across age and gender groups as well as across the two language versions.
Mastery refers to the degree to which people perceive that they can control factors that influence their life situation, and has been found important for people's quality of life and well-being. It is thus essential to be able to measure mastery in a valid and reliable way.
This study aimed at using the Rasch measurement model to investigate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Pearlin Mastery Scale (Mastery-S).
A sample of 300 healthy individuals and 278 persons with mental illness responded to the Mastery-S. Item responses were Rasch analysed regarding model fit, response category functioning, differential item functioning (DIF) and targeting, using the partial credit model.
The Mastery-S items represented a logical continuum of the measured construct but one item displayed misfit. Reliability (Person Separation Index) was 0.7. The response categories did not work as expected in three items, which could be corrected for by collapsing categories. Three items displayed DIF between the two subsamples, which caused a bias when comparing mastery levels between subsamples, suggesting the Mastery-S is not truly generic.
The Mastery-S may be used to obtain valid and reliable data, but some precautions should be made. If used to compare groups, new analyses of DIF should first be made. Users of the scale should also consider exempting item 6 from the scale and analyse it as a separate item. Finally, rewording of response categories should be considered in order to make them more distinct and thereby improve score reliability.
Apathy, a prevalent and clinically relevant symptom in neurodegenerative disease, is often evaluated by the instrument Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). However, this instrument has not been translated into Swedish, halting clinical and research efforts. Furthermore, previous studies lack analyses of some basic properties, such as the legitimacy of a total score, or have analysed dimensionality by questionable methods.
To translate and psychometrically evaluate a Swedish version of the AES.
The AES was translated, and its psychometric properties were tested in the Swedish BioFINDER study, including cognitively well elderly, and subjects with mild cognitive or parkinsonian symptoms. Psychometric analyses were conducted according to classical test theory (CTT) and aimed to resemble those performed in the English original study by Marin et al. in 1991. Dimensionality was additionally analysed on a matrix of polychoric correlations and parallel analyses.
Data indicate that the Swedish AES performs satisfactorily regarding data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting, and reliability. Principal component analyses (with parallel analysis) of polychoric correlation matrices identified a single component. Convergent and discriminative validity correlations accorded with a priori expectations.
The study provides initial support that this Swedish AES performs similarly to the English original, and exhibits acceptable psychometric properties according to CTT, including supported unidimensionality, and may be adopted for use in clinical and research settings.
High-quality fatigue rating scales are needed to advance the understanding of fatigue and determine the efficacy of interventions. Several fatigue scales are used in Parkinson's disease, but few have been tested using modern psychometric methodology (Rasch analysis).
To examine the measurement properties of the generic Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale and the condition-specific 16-item Parkinson Fatigue Scale (PFS-16) using Rasch analysis.
Postal survey data (n=150; 47% women; mean age 70 years) were Rasch analyzed. The PFS-16 scores were tested according to both the original polytomous and the suggested alternative dichotomized scoring methods.
The PFS-16 showed overall Rasch model fit, whereas the FACIT-F showed signs of misfit, which probably was the result of a sleepiness-related item and mixing of positively/negatively worded items. There was no differential item functioning by disease duration but by fatigue status (greater likelihood of needing to sleep or rest during the day among people classified as nonfatigued) in the PFS-16 and FACIT-F. However, this did not impact total score-based estimated person measures. Targeting and reliability (=0.86) were good, but the dichotomized PFS-16 showed compromised measurement precision. Polytomous and dichotomized PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores identified six, three, and four statistically distinct sample strata, respectively.
We found general support for the measurement properties of both scales. However, polytomous PFS-16 scores exhibited advantages compared with dichotomous PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores. Dichotomization of item responses compromises measurement precision and the ability to separate people, and should be avoided.
The aim was to evaluate data quality and psychometric properties of an instrument for measurement of health-related quality of life: DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module (DCGM-37) used in school-aged children with cancer.
All school-children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden during a two-and-a-half year period were invited to participate in the study. Analysis was performed on combined data from two assessments, two and-a-half and five months after start of cancer treatment (n = 170). The instrument was examined with respect to feasibility, data quality, reliability and construct and criterion-based validity.
Missing items per dimension ranged from 0 to 5.3 percent, with a majority below three percent. Cronbach's alpha values exceeded 0.70 for all dimensions. There was support for the suggested groupings of items into dimensions for all but six of the 36 items of the DCGM-37 included in this study. The instrument discriminated satisfactorily between diagnoses reflecting treatment burden.
The results indicate satisfactory data quality and reliability of the DCGM-37 when used in children undergoing treatment for cancer. Evaluation of construct validity showed generally acceptable results, although not entirely supporting the suggested dimensionality. Continued psychometric evaluation in a larger sample of children during and after treatment for cancer is recommended.
This study investigated psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing perceived occupational value, the 26-item OVal-pd. Data from 225 Swedish subjects with and without known mental illness were analysed regarding fit to the Rasch measurement model (partial credit model), differential item functioning (DIF), and functioning of the OVal-pd four-category response scale. The reliability (index of person separation, analogous to Cronbach's alpha) was good (0.92) but there were signs of overall and item level (six items) misfit. There was DIF between people with and without mental illness for three items. Iterative deletion of misfitting items resulted in a new 18-item DIF-free scale with good overall and individual item fit and maintained reliability (0.91). There were no disordered response category thresholds. These observations also held true in separate analyses among people with and without mental illness. Thus, the first steps of ensuring that occupational value can be measured in a valid and reliable way have been taken. Still, occupational value is a dynamic construct and the aspects that fit the construct may vary between contexts. This has implications for, e.g., cross-cultural research and calls for identification of a core set of culture-free items to allow for valid cross-cultural comparisons.
The psychometric properties of the three-item Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS) were evaluated using the classical test theory. Different cut-offs for identifying insomnia were suggested in two age groups (=6 and =7 among adult and elderly people, respectively). The aim of the present study was to test the measurement properties of the MISS using the Rasch measurement model, with special emphasis on differential item functioning by gender and age.
Cross-sectional MISS data from adult (age 20-64 years, n?=?1075) and elderly (age 65+, n?=?548) populations were analysed using the Rasch measurement model.
Data generally met Rasch model requirements and the scale could separate between two distinct groups of people. Differential item functioning was found by age but not gender. The difference between the adult and elderly samples was lower for the originally recommended =6 points cut-off (0.09 logits) than for the =7 points cut-off (0.23 logits), but greater at the lower and higher ends of the scale.
This study provides general support for the measurement properties of the MISS. Caution should be exercised in comparing raw MISS scores between age groups, but applying a =6 cut-off appears to allow for valid comparisons between adults and the elderly regarding the presence of insomnia. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinically optimal cut-score for identification of insomnia.