The BIA method, based on assessment of patients in activities, was developed to enable reliable assessment of clients' occupational functioning. The method evaluates the patient's ego functions and capacity for activity and participation. The aims of this study were to examine inter-rater reliability for the BIA method and to compare the experiences of staff working with the BIA with those of staff using standard assessment (SA). In SA, the patient's activity problems and capacities were assessed without using any structured protocol. Four staff members worked according to the BIA method and eight according to SA. The estimation of reliability was based on data from 14 patients who went through the BIA and were assessed by five staff members. These assessments resulted in all in about 400 statements, which were classified and compared for agreement between raters. In order to address the aim concerning staff experiences, a questionnaire was filled out anonymously by the staff. The inter-rater reliability of the nine ego functions varied from 0.76 to 1.00. The scale was deemed appropriate by the BIA staff and they had significantly higher median ratings on work satisfaction and appropriateness than the SA staff. In conclusion, the inter-rater reliability of the BIA was found to be good. The BIA method also seems to have a high degree of appropriateness, constituting a promising assessment tool when occupational functioning is addressed.
A self-report instrument assessing work-related factors among people with psychiatric disabilities would be useful when trying to match possible employment or prevocational opportunities with people's desires and capacities. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct and criterion validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) in this group as well as possible floor and ceiling effects. The participants were 283 clients from day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities and from outpatient units for people with psychosis. They completed the WRS and instruments selected to assess construct validity in terms of convergent (motivation for work and current activity level as reference variables) and discriminant validity (quality of life and self-rated health as reference variables). Two factors were identified, one tapping beliefs in a future worker role and one reflecting current capacities and routines. The internal consistency for the scale as a whole was good at 0.84. The factor reflecting a future worker role correlated as expected with the reference variables used to assess convergent and discriminant validity, whereas current capacities and routines showed a moderate association with quality of life and self-rated health, assumed to indicate discriminant validity. Criterion validity was shown in that those who had recent work experiences scored higher than the others on WRS. No floor or ceiling effects were identified. The findings indicate acceptable psychometric properties of the WRS. Further development is still warranted, however; the factor solution needs to be replicated and the construct validity should be further established.
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measures general stress and the Swedish version, although used in several studies, has not been extensively evaluated for psychometric properties.
This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and the factor solution of the Swedish 14-item version when used with two samples, namely a mixed Internet sample of women and men (n = 171) and another of women with stress-related disorders (n = 84). Classical test theory, including confirmatory factor analysis, was employed.
The factor structure supported a two-factor model for the PSS and confirmed other language versions of the PSS, although one items showed a low item-total correlation. The PSS showed to be feasible with the investigated samples and the results indicated no ceiling or floor effects and good internal consistency of the PSS. Several aspects of construct validity were shown. An association of - 0.66 between the PSS and a measure of coping indicated good concurrent validity. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a statistically significant difference (P
As support in leading a meaningful and active life, a person with mental illness is often given the opportunity to attend a day centre. However, few studies have investigated the meaningfulness perceived by the person visiting a day centre. For such a purpose, a self-report instrument was developed.
To explore whether perceived meaningfulness, as expressed in the recently developed instrument Evaluation of Perceived Meaning in Day Centers (EPM-DC), could be viewed as one dimension and also to investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument.
Persons with mental illness attending five day centres in Sweden participated and completed the questionnaire. The data were analysed by Rasch analysis.
The study showed that the concept captured in the instrument could be viewed as unidimensional and the result gave preliminary evidence for sound psychometric properties.
The results indicate promising signs of validity and reliability, but the suitability of self-reporting may be questioned.
Mastery refers to the degree to which people perceive that they can control factors that influence their life situation, and has been found important for people's quality of life and well-being. It is thus essential to be able to measure mastery in a valid and reliable way.
This study aimed at using the Rasch measurement model to investigate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Pearlin Mastery Scale (Mastery-S).
A sample of 300 healthy individuals and 278 persons with mental illness responded to the Mastery-S. Item responses were Rasch analysed regarding model fit, response category functioning, differential item functioning (DIF) and targeting, using the partial credit model.
The Mastery-S items represented a logical continuum of the measured construct but one item displayed misfit. Reliability (Person Separation Index) was 0.7. The response categories did not work as expected in three items, which could be corrected for by collapsing categories. Three items displayed DIF between the two subsamples, which caused a bias when comparing mastery levels between subsamples, suggesting the Mastery-S is not truly generic.
The Mastery-S may be used to obtain valid and reliable data, but some precautions should be made. If used to compare groups, new analyses of DIF should first be made. Users of the scale should also consider exempting item 6 from the scale and analyse it as a separate item. Finally, rewording of response categories should be considered in order to make them more distinct and thereby improve score reliability.
The widely used Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSES) has not been evaluated for psychometric properties in Sweden.
This study aimed at analyzing its factor structure, internal consistency, criterion, convergent and discriminant validity, sensitivity to change, and whether a four-graded Likert-type response scale increased its reliability and validity compared to a yes/no response scale.
People with mental illness participating in intervention studies to (1) promote everyday life balance (N?=?223) or (2) remedy self-stigma (N?=?103) were included. Both samples completed the RSES and questionnaires addressing quality of life and sociodemographic data. Sample 1 also completed instruments chosen to assess convergent and discriminant validity: self-mastery (convergent validity), level of functioning and occupational engagement (discriminant validity). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modeling, and conventional inferential statistics were used.
Based on both samples, the Swedish RSES formed one factor and exhibited high internal consistency (>0.90). The two response scales were equivalent. Criterion validity in relation to quality of life was demonstrated. RSES could distinguish between women and men (women scoring lower) and between diagnostic groups (people with depression scoring lower). Correlations >0.5 with variables chosen to reflect convergent validity and around 0.2 with variables used to address discriminant validity further highlighted the construct validity of RSES. The instrument also showed sensitivity to change.
The Swedish RSES exhibited a one-component factor structure and showed good psychometric properties in terms of good internal consistency, criterion, convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change. The yes/no and the four-graded Likert-type response scales worked equivalently.
This study investigated psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing perceived occupational value, the 26-item OVal-pd. Data from 225 Swedish subjects with and without known mental illness were analysed regarding fit to the Rasch measurement model (partial credit model), differential item functioning (DIF), and functioning of the OVal-pd four-category response scale. The reliability (index of person separation, analogous to Cronbach's alpha) was good (0.92) but there were signs of overall and item level (six items) misfit. There was DIF between people with and without mental illness for three items. Iterative deletion of misfitting items resulted in a new 18-item DIF-free scale with good overall and individual item fit and maintained reliability (0.91). There were no disordered response category thresholds. These observations also held true in separate analyses among people with and without mental illness. Thus, the first steps of ensuring that occupational value can be measured in a valid and reliable way have been taken. Still, occupational value is a dynamic construct and the aspects that fit the construct may vary between contexts. This has implications for, e.g., cross-cultural research and calls for identification of a core set of culture-free items to allow for valid cross-cultural comparisons.
The ward atmosphere of psychiatric care units has a major impact on treatment and satisfaction for both patients and staff. The Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) was developed to capture the ward atmosphere in different psychiatric settings and is a well-established instrument for this purpose. However, there is need for an update and revision of the WAS.
The aim of the present study was to test a Swedish version of the revised WAS in terms of its internal consistency, content and construct validity, and usability.
Data collection took place at four psychiatric wards and 31 patients and 34 staff completed the WAS, as well as content and construct validity questions.
Results showed that the WAS had acceptable to satisfactory internal consistency for all subscales, except for autonomy. Low correlation values between the WAS and the Good Milieu Index were obtained, against which construct validity was discussed. Results of the content validity and usability questionnaires indicate that the WAS is easy to understand and complete, but some of the items were difficult for the respondents to understand and some of the subjects were missing aspects of the physical ward environment.
The present study confirms that the Swedish version of the revised WAS can be useful for examining the ward atmosphere in psychiatric care. However, more studies are needed in order to further test the psychometric properties of the WAS and the results of the usability questionnaire may indicate a need to use supplementary instruments in order to capture the physical ward environment as well.
Occupational value with predefined items scale is an originally 26-item Swedish tool used to assess values people find in their everyday doings. The present study validated this scale on a Turkish sample and described the values that Turks perceived in their daily doings. The participants included a convenience sample of 446 adults with mean age 26 (SD?=?7.3). Initial item analysis followed by principal component analysis (Promax) and internal reliability analyses of the components were conducted. Statistics yielded a 19-item solution distributed across four factors. The Cronbach's alpha was .86, indicating good reliability. Confirming the earlier applications of the scale in the European and the American samples, factors related to recuperation, goal direction and social interaction emerged. Additionally, there appeared another occupational value subfactor, conservation, which did not show up in the Swedish and the American data analyses.
To develop a self-report alternative to the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS).
First the novel instrument was used and evaluated by ten occupational therapists and 45~clients in primary health care. Then the instrument was used by 26~clients who participated in a rehabilitation programme in another primary health care district.
The instrument was investigated in two steps. First content validity and utility were investigated through a questionnaire addressed to occupational therapists and their clients respectively. The response distribution was calculated by frequencies. Internal consistency was investigated. In the second step, a revised version of the instrument was investigated for test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was calculated by weighted kappa. The internal consistency of the WEIS-SR was calculated by means of Cronbach's alpha.
In step one the content validity was good to moderately good, the utility was good, and the internal consistency was satisfactory (0.72). In step two the internal consistency was good (0.88/0.89) and the test-retest reliability was mostly good to moderate (0.35-0.78, median 0.61).
The instrument will be further investigated in other populations and take into consideration additional psychometric properties such as sensitivity to change, predictive validity, and concurrent validity.