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7 records – page 1 of 1.

Quality-adjusted life-years versus healthy-years equivalents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215370
Source
J Health Econ. 1995 May;14(1):9-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1995
Author
M. Johannesson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
Source
J Health Econ. 1995 May;14(1):9-16
Date
May-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Data Collection
Health Services Research
Humans
Models, Econometric
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - economics - statistics & numerical data
Quality of Life
Reproducibility of Results
Risk assessment
Sweden
Value of Life
Notes
Comment On: J Health Econ. 1993 Oct;12(3):301-910145202
Comment On: J Health Econ. 1993 Oct;12(3):325-3910129840
Comment On: J Health Econ. 1993 Oct;12(3):311-2310129839
PubMed ID
10143492 View in PubMed
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An experimental test of a theoretical foundation for rating-scale valuations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature14259
Source
Med Decis Making. 1997 Apr-Jun;17(2):208-16
Publication Type
Article
Author
H. Bleichrodt
M. Johannesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. bleichrodt@econ.bmg.eur.nl
Source
Med Decis Making. 1997 Apr-Jun;17(2):208-16
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - classification
Adult
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - diagnosis
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Decision Support Techniques
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Netherlands
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden
Abstract
A major advantage of using a rating scale in health-utility measurement is its practical applicability: the method is relatively easy to understand, and various health states can be assessed simultaneously. However, a theoretical foundation for rating-scale valuations has not been established. The primary aim of this paper is to present a theoretical foundation for rating-scale valuations based on the theory of measurable value functions and to provide a consistency test to see whether rating-scale valuations do indeed elicit a measurable value function. If rating-scale valuations elicit a measurable value function, then Dyer and Sarin have shown how they are related to von Neumann-Morgensterm (vNM) utilities. The appropriate technique to measure vNM utilities is the standard gamble. Torrance has suggested that rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations are related by a power function. A secondary aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations hypothesized by Torrance. An experiment was designed to test consistency of rating-scale valuations and the relationship between rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations. The experiment tested whether rating-scale valuations are independent of the context in which they are elicited, as they should be if they elicit points on a measurable value function. 80 Swedish and 92 Dutch respondents participated in the experiment. The results showed that rating-scale valuations depend on the number of preferred alternatives in the task and thus violate a basic property of measurable value functions. The estimation of the power function did not result in stable results: parameter estimates varied, in some cases there was indication of misspecification, and in most cases there was indication of heteroskedastic errors. The implications of these findings for the common use of rating-scale valuations in cost-utility analysis are serious: the dependency of the rating-scale valuations on the other health states included in the task casts serious doubts on the validity of the rating-scale method.
Notes
Comment In: Med Decis Making. 1998 Apr-Jun;18(2):2369566457
PubMed ID
9107617 View in PubMed
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A computer model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200706
Source
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1999;15(2):352-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
N. Zethraeus
M. Johannesson
B. Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Stockholm School of Economics.
Source
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1999;15(2):352-65
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Computer simulation
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - adverse effects - economics - methods - psychology
Female
Humans
Life expectancy
Middle Aged
Monte Carlo Method
Quality of Life
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper gives a detailed presentation of a computer model for evaluating the cost-effectiveness (CE) of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), describing the model's design, structure, and data requirements. The model needs data specified for costs, quality of life, risks, and mortality rates. As an illustration, the CE of HRT in Sweden is calculated. Two treatment strategies are evaluated for asymptomatic women: estrogen-only therapy and estrogen combined with a progestin. The model produces similar results compared with earlier studies. The CE ratios improve with the size of the risk reduction and generally with age. Further, estrogen-only therapy is associated with a lower cost per gained effectiveness unit compared with combined therapy. Uncertainty surrounding the long-term effects of HRT means that the CE estimates should be interpreted carefully. The model permits the inclusion of indirect costs and costs in added life-years, allowing the analysis to be made from a societal perspective, which is an improvement relative to previous studies.
PubMed ID
10507194 View in PubMed
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Valuation of health changes with the contingent valuation method: a test of scope and question order effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72832
Source
Health Econ. 1996 Nov-Dec;5(6):531-41
Publication Type
Article
Author
B. Kartman
N O Stålhammar
M. Johannesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
Source
Health Econ. 1996 Nov-Dec;5(6):531-41
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Attitude to Health
Cost-Benefit Analysis - methods
Drug Costs
Esophagitis, Peptic - drug therapy - economics - psychology
Female
Health Services Research - economics - methods
Humans
Income
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Econometric
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the contingent valuation method for measurement of monetary values of various commodities. However, the validity and reliability of the method need to be examined thoroughly. This paper reports results of a test of scope and question order effects in a contingent valuation experiment in the health care field. Using three binary valuation questions, data were collected on willingness to pay for superior treatment of reflux oesophagitis. To test for scope effects, different probabilities of successful short- and long-term treatments were evaluated using a split sample approach. The presence of question order effects was tested by assigning respondents to different question orders. The contingent valuation method proved sensitive to changes in scope in that the willingness to pay increased with the probability of being free from symptoms and with a reduced risk of having a relapse once recovered. Also, regression analysis indicate that people who suffer from severe reflux oesophagitis are more willing to pay for more effective treatment. No question order effects were detected in the data.
PubMed ID
9003940 View in PubMed
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The relationship between health-state utilities and the SF-12 in a general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52585
Source
Med Decis Making. 1999 Apr-Jun;19(2):128-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
L. Lundberg
M. Johannesson
D G Isacson
L. Borgquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Sweden. Lena.Lundberg@samfarm.uu.se
Source
Med Decis Making. 1999 Apr-Jun;19(2):128-40
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Role
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
It would be a major advance if quality-of-life instruments could be translated into health-state utilities. The aim with this study was to investigate the relationship between the SF-12 and health-state utilities, based on responses to a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of 8,000 inhabitants, aged 20-84 years, in the general population. The questionnaire included the SF-12, a rating-scale (RS) question, and a time-tradeoff (TTO) question; the response rate was 68%. Age, gender, and the 12 items of the SF-12 were used as explanatory variables in a linear regression analysis of the health-state utilities. The regression models explained about 50% of the variance in the RS answers and about 25% of the variance in the TTO answers. Most of the SF-12 items were related to the health-state utilities in the expected ways, with especially strong results for the RS method. The results suggest that the SF-12 can be converted to health-state utilities, but that further work is needed to reliably estimate the conversion function.
PubMed ID
10231075 View in PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol lowering. Results from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211591
Source
Eur Heart J. 1996 Jul;17(7):1001-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1996
Author
B. Jönsson
M. Johannesson
J. Kjekshus
A G Olsson
T R Pedersen
H. Wedel
Author Affiliation
For the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
Source
Eur Heart J. 1996 Jul;17(7):1001-7
Date
Jul-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anticholesteremic Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Case-Control Studies
Clinical Trials as Topic
Coronary Disease - drug therapy - economics
Cost of Illness
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - drug therapy
Lovastatin - analogs & derivatives - economics - therapeutic use
Prospective Studies
Reproducibility of Results
Scandinavia
Simvastatin
Survival Rate
Abstract
An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of simvastatin was conducted, based on the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). The total cost of hospitalization in the placebo group was 52.8 million Swedish kronor (SEK) (5.15 million pounds), compared with SEK 36.0 million (3.51 million pounds) in the simvastatin group. This amounts to a 32% reduction, or a saving of SEK 16.8 million (1.6 million pounds) or SEK 7560 (738 pounds) per patient. The net cost per patient for the duration of the study (5.4 years) was SEK 13,540 (1324 pounds). Simvastatin treatment saved an estimated 0.377 undiscounted life years (0.240 life years discounted at 5% per annum). The cost of simvastatin therapy per discounted life-year saved was therefore SEK 56,400 (5502 pounds). Sensitivity analysis, examining the effect of different life expectancies, costs of initiation and monitoring of simvastatin therapy, and discount rates, showed the results to be stable. Conclusion. The cost per life-year saved of simvastatin in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction and angina patients, as determined from 4S data, is well within the range normally considered cost-effective.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 1996 Jul;17(7):974-58809507
PubMed ID
8809516 View in PubMed
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Willingness to pay for reductions in angina pectoris attacks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54635
Source
Med Decis Making. 1996 Jul-Sep;16(3):248-53
Publication Type
Article
Author
B. Kartman
F. Andersson
M. Johannesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
Source
Med Decis Making. 1996 Jul-Sep;16(3):248-53
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Angina Pectoris - economics - prevention & control
Bias (epidemiology)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Financing, Personal - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Income
Male
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Program Evaluation - economics - methods
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Survival Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
To compare the costs of health care programs, with the benefits, the values of changes in health status must be expressed in monetary terms. The development of methods to estimate willingness to pay for changes in health status is therefore of interest. This paper reports the results of a contingent valuation study measuring willingness to pay for reductions in angina pectoris attacks. An innovative study design allowed analysis on the data on willingness to pay using two approaches, a binary question and a bidding-game technique. Percentage reductions in anginal attacks were varied randomly in different subsamples, and data were collected about angina pectoris status, attack rate, and income to test the internal validity of the contingent valuation method. Willingness to pay for a 50% reduction in the attack rate for three months was estimated to be about SEK 2,500 ($345) with the binary approach, and about SEK 2,100 ($290) using the bidding-game technique. Regression analyses showed that income, angina pectoris status, attack rate, and percentage reduction in attack rate were all related to willingness to pay, in agreement with the authors' hypothesis.
PubMed ID
8818123 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.