We wanted to provide details on the psychometric documentation of the Swedish version of the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ), a patient based measure of postmenopausal complaints. The results of two clinical trials in Sweden in which the WHQ had been used as one out of several measurement tools were used to document the reliability, the validity and the responsiveness to change of the WHQ. More than 350 women suffering from postmenopausal complaints were included in the two trials. A factor analysis, using the baseline values of all women in each study, showed that the Swedish version of the WHQ was very close to the English original. The internal consistency reliability was excellent. The clinical validity was confirmed by a significant correlation between change in E2 levels and change in the WHQ during estrogen therapy. A high construct validity was established by the agreement between the WHQ and other quality of life scales. For use in clinical trials the WHQ was sensitive to treatment-induced changes, and added important information to the clinical effect variables.
The aim of the present study was to adapt the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) to accommodate adult patients with psoriasis. The sample comprised 334 patients who were treated consecutively at three dermatology departments in the eastern Norway. A total number of 273 hospitalised patients (20%) and out-patients (80%) completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 82%. The study assessed the reliability and the face, content and construct validity of the Norwegian version of the JCS. In addition, researchers investigated the most frequently used/effective coping strategies, the relationships between demographic/clinical variables, self-reported physical symptoms and the use of coping strategies. The results (correlational coefficients and interitem alpha s) indicated that there was an overlap in substantive content among the original JCS subscales, due either to measurement error (bias or response style) and/or because the patients in the present study were in a demanding situation in relation to their disease, which may have activated a variety of coping strategies. A factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (confrontive problem-solving, normalising/optimistic and combined emotive) with satisfactory internal consistency. This factor solution comprised 31 items with an explained variance of 37% of the total pool of items. The most frequently used and effective coping strategies could be labelled as emotion-focused (optimistic/maintain control). Significant correlations were found between age, hospital setting, self-reported physical symptoms and different coping subscales. However, further studies are needed to assess the validity and reliability of the JCS among different population groups in Norway.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Norwegian version of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index in a sample of 131 men and women with newly diagnosed cancer. The Quality of Life Index was translated into Norwegian using a standardized international approach, including back-translation. The findings showed high internal consistency reliability for the global score (alpha = 0.93 (test)) as well as for the following domains: health and functioning (alpha = 0.88), socio-economic (alpha = 0.82), psychological/spiritual (alpha = 0.82) and family (alpha = 0.79). The test-retest reliability after 3-4 weeks was 0.78 for the global score. A factor analysis partially confirmed the different subscales. In conclusion, the Quality of Life Index was found to be reliable and had sufficient validity to be used for measuring quality of life in Norwegian cancer patients.
Few well-validated self-and/or parent-administered instruments are available for measuring functional status in children with rheumatic diseases. Parts of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) have been adapted for use in children in the so-called Child HAQ. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of this instrument in a Swedish setting. The Child HAQ was administered to 186 patients and 211 patients participating in a population-based follow-up study of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) in southwestern Sweden. The EULAR criteria were used for inclusion. Children who were 9 years of age or older self-reported. Reliability, evaluated by test-retest, inter-observer correlations and internal reliability, was excellent. Convergent validity was demonstrated by strong correlations of the disability index, pain, and morning stiffness with disease activity and the Steinbrocker functional classes. Discriminant validity was evidenced by the capacity of the instrument to evaluate patients as being active or in remission. Thus, the Child HAQ showed excellent measurement performance in a Swedish setting when using parents or children more than 9 years old as responders.
In a consecutive study of 140 patients investigated one month after myocardial infarction (MI), a battery of American and English questionnaires was used to measure depression, anxiety, sleep problems, health locus of control and perceived health. These measures were compared with a well-documented generic questionnaire, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and a similarly well-documented mood scale, the Mood Adjective Check List (MACL). There was close agreement among all measures depicting anxiety and tension. The concordance between the measures of anxiety states and depression was lower. Depression and sleep problems seem to constitute separate concepts, since they are not as highly related to the other measures of anxiety. Because psychosocial factors are important measures for the outcome after an infarction, accurate assessments of these variables are required. Further research is clearly warranted to clarify the complicated interaction between psychosocial constructs and to improve the methods used for their evaluation.
The aim of this study was to adapt, validate, and test for reliability the Quality of Life Scale in Norwegian (QOLS-N) for patients suffering from psoriasis. Two hundred and eighty-two patients with psoriasis were included in the study. Self-reported health was measured using the SF-36. Disease severity was also measured in 95 patients using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The reliability of the QOLS-N was computed using the internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and the test-retest reliability test. Face and content validity and construct discriminant ability of the QOLS-N were assessed. The results indicated that the QOLS-N has highly satisfactory rates of test-retest reliability (r = 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (alpha 0.86). As expected, the QOLS-N had a lower correlation with physical health (r = 0.24, p