Person-centeredness is increasingly advocated in the literature as a gold-standard, best practice concept in health services for older people. This concept describes care that incorporates individual and multidimensional needs, personal biography, subjectivity and interpersonal relationships. However, acute in-patient hospital services have a long-standing biomedical tradition that may contrast with person-centred care. Since few tools exist that enable measurements of the extent to which acute in-patient hospital services are perceived as being person-centred, this study aimed to translate the English version of the Person-centred care of older people with cognitive impairment in acute care scale (POPAC) to Swedish, and evaluate its psychometric properties in a sample of acute hospital staff.
The 15-item POPAC was translated, back-translated and culturally adjusted, and distributed to a cross-sectional sample of Swedish acute care staff (n = 293). Item performance was evaluated through assessment of item means, internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha on total and on subscale levels; temporal stability was assessed through Pearson's product correlation and intra-class correlation between test and retest scores. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore model fit.
The results indicate that the Swedish version POPAC provides a tentatively construct-valid and reliable contribution to measuring the extent to which acute in-patient hospital services have processes and procedures that can facilitate person-centred care of older patients with cognitive impairment. However, some questions remain regarding the dimensionality of POPAC.
POPAC provides a valuable contribution to the quest of improving acute care for older patients with cognitive impairment by enabling measures and subsequent accumulation of internationally comparable data for research and practice development purposes. POPAC can be used to highlight strengths and areas for improvements in care practice for older patients, and to illuminate aspects that risk being overlooked in busy acute hospital settings.
To assess the content validity and reliability of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version in long-term care facilities, to describe residents' perceptions of the extent to which their ward climate was person-centred and to explore whether person-centredness was associated with facility and resident characteristics, such as facility and ward size, having a sensory garden and having a primary caregiver.
The importance of the physical environment to persons with dementia has been investigated. However, research is lacking regarding the extent to which mentally lucid residents experience their physical and psycho-social ward climate as person-centred and the factors influencing their experience.
Cross-sectional survey design.
The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version was translated into Norwegian with forward and backward translation. The content validity index for scales was assessed. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire -Patient version was completed by 145 mentally lucid residents in 17 Norwegian long-term care facilities. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's a and item-total correlations. Test-retest reliability was assessed by paired samples t-test and Spearman's correlation. To explore differences based on facility and resident characteristics, independent-samples t-test and one-way anova were used.
The content validity index for scales was satisfactory. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version was internally consistent and had satisfactory test-retest reliability. The climate was experienced as highly person-centred. No significant differences were found, except that residents in larger facilities experienced the climate as more person-centred in relation to everyday activities (subscale 2) than residents in smaller facilities.
The Norwegian version of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version can be regarded as reliable in a long-term care facility context. Perceived degree of person-centredness was not associated with facility or resident characteristics, such as the number of residents, having a sensory garden or knowing that one has a primary caregiver.
A person-centred climate can be attained in different kinds of long-term care facilities.
This study aimed to establish reliability and cut-off scores for the person-centred climate questionnaire - staff version (PCQ-S) in residential aged care.
A number of tools have emerged recently to measure person-centredness, and these need psychometric evaluation and cut-off scores to enhance utilisation and interpretation.
A cross-sectional survey design was employed in a Swedish sample of residential aged care staff (n = 1237). Psychometric evaluation using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation was used, together with establishing cut-off scores based on quartile scores.
The PCQ-S had satisfactory psychometric properties and the following total scale cut-off scores for unit person-centredness were suggested: = 49 ('well below average'), 50-56 ('below average'), 57-62 ('above average') and = 63 ('well above average'). These cut-off scores were clinically meaningful as they separated the sample into four groups in which staff in more person-centred units reported significantly higher work satisfaction, social support and less stress of conscience.
The PCQ-S has reliability in residential aged care samples, and cut-off scores are provided that provide important fundaments for comparative studies and aggregation of data to explore person-centredness care further.
The study enables managers with ways to measure, interpret and compare levels of person-centredness between units and facilities for research, practice development and/or benchmarking purposes.
In a holistic view of care, the family is important for the patient as well as for the staff and integration of family members in health care is a growing trend. Yet, family participation in the care is sparsely investigated and valid assessment instruments are needed.
Data were collected from 200 family members participating in an intervention study at an emergency department (ED) in Sweden.
The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Family (PCQ-F) is a measure for how family members perceive the psychosocial climate. PCQ-F is a self-report instrument that contains 17 items assessing safety, everydayness and hospitality--three subscale dimensions that mirror the Swedish patient version of the questionnaire, the PCQ-P.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PCQ-F in an ED context.
The psychometric properties of the PCQ-F were evaluated using statistical estimates of validity and reliability and showed high content validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's Alpha was >0.7 and item-total correlations were >0.3 and
Person-centered care is a multidimensional concept describing good care, especially within aged care and care for people with dementia. Research studies evaluating person-centered care interventions seldom use direct measurement of levels of person-centeredness. Existing scales that measure person-centeredness need further testing. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Person-Centered Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT).
A cross-sectional sample of 1465 staff from 195 residential care units for older people in Sweden participated in the study. Validity, reliability, and discrimination ability of the scale were evaluated.
Confirmatory factor analysis, parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor solution. Reliability and homogeneity were satisfactory for the whole P-CAT as demonstrated by a Cronbach's a of 0.75. Test-retest reliability showed temporal stability of the scale, and the discrimination ability of the scale was satisfactory.
The Swedish version of the P-CAT was found to be valid, reliable, and applicable for further use. Two subscales are recommended for the Swedish version.
To explore construct validity and reliability of the Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale.
The concept of thriving emphasizes person-environment interaction in relation to well-being. The Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale has been developed and evaluated as a self-report and proxy scale based on the theory of thriving.
Cross-sectional survey design.
The Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale was completed by a sample of 259 residents, 146 family members and 52 staff from 13 long-term care facilities in Norway and Sweden. Data were collected between April 2010-December 2011. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to explore construct validity in terms of factor structure and dimensionality of the 32-item scale in relation to the thriving theory. Reliability was explored through internal consistency estimation using Cronbach's alpha and through homogeneity evaluation using corrected item-total correlations.
Exploratory factor analysis resulted in five factors (subscales) that corresponded meaningfully with the thriving theory and were labelled 1: Resident' attitudes towards being in long-term care; 2: Quality of care and caregivers; 3: Resident engagement and peer relationships; 4: Keeping in touch with people and places; and 5: Quality of the physical environment. The scale had satisfactory internal consistency and homogeneity estimates.
The 32-item Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale can be regarded as construct valid and reliable. Its factor structure corresponded logically to the thriving theory and its factors showed satisfactory internal consistency and homogeneity. Nevertheless, the TOPAS would benefit from further testing in other populations and contexts.