The purpose of this study was to assess the relative health system cost of pediatric ambulatory hospital-based hemodialysis and home-based peritoneal dialysis, including both continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis when either treatment is equally appropriate. A cost analysis was performed from the viewpoint of the "study hospital" and service providers (physicians) using treatment protocols, based on current clinical practice, which incorporate procedures to establish dialysis access sites, ongoing dialysis maintenance, and possible complications. Cost estimates used information from the period between April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994, including fully allocated inpatient and outpatient costs. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to analyze the effect of complications on treatment costs. Total annual costs (in 1994 Canadian dollars, $1.00 CDN approximately $0.75. US) of a typical and uncomplicated continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis patient were $47,569, $48,658, and $76,023, respectively. Differences in cost between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients were due to hemodialysis maintenance costs, which were attributed to larger physician fees (25.8 percent), greater direct treatment costs incurred by the study hospital (14.2 percent), and higher overhead costs (60.0 percent). The expected total cost of hemodialysis complicated by an arteriovenous fistula clot and central venous line blockages, or peritoneal dialysis complicated by hernia repair and peritonitis was $78,568 and $50,438 for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. For the range of complication probabilities considered, expected total costs were always lower with peritoneal dialysis than with hemodialysis. The cost analysis demonstrates that peritoneal dialysis is less costly than hemodialysis for pediatric patients. Such analyses are but one component of the treatment decision, and as such, should not be viewed as the sole means to yield a treatment decision, but rather as a device for systematically evaluating the alternative treatment options.
Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering.
For patients on dialysis therapy for longer than 180 days, 23% to 77% had a hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration less than 11 g/dL ( or =110 g/L) if they were older; were men; had polycystic kidney disease; had greater albumin, transferrin saturation, or calcium levels; were not dialyzing with a catheter; or had lower ferritin levels. Facilities with greater intravenous iron use showed significantly greater facility mean Hgb concentrations. Mean EPO dose varied from 5,297 (Japan) to 17,360 U/wk (United States). Greater country mean EPO doses were significantly associated with greater country mean Hgb concentrations. Several patient characteristics were associated with greater EPO doses. Even in some countries with high intravenous iron use, 35% to 40% of patients had a transferrin saturation less than 20% (below guidelines).
These findings indicate large international variations in anemia management, with significant improvements during the last 5 years, although many patients remain below current anemia guidelines, suggesting large and specific opportunities for improvement.
To clarify the reasons and beneficial effects and duration of arteriovenous fistula patency after radiological interventions in arteriovenous fistula. The patients investigated were referred due to arteriovenous fistula access flow problems.
In 174 patients, 522 radiological investigations and endovascular treatments such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were analyzed, retrospectively. All investigations were performed due to clinical suspicion of impaired arteriovenous fistula function.
Arterial stenosis was significantly more frequent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (p?
In Ontario, Canada, hemodialysis services are organized in a "hub and spoke" model comprised of regional centers (hubs), satellites, and independent health facilities (IHFs; spokes). Rarely is a nephrologist on site when dialysis treatments take place at satellite units or IHFs. Situations occur that require transfer of the patient back ("fallbacks") to the regional center that necessitate either in- or outpatient care. Growth in the satellite dialysis population has led to an increased burden on the regional centers. This study was carried out to determine the incidence, nature, and outcome of such fallbacks to aid resource planning.
Data were collected on 565 patients from five regional centers over 1 yr. These regional centers controlled 19 satellite dialysis centers including 7 IHFs.
There were 681 fallbacks in 328 patients: 1.21 incidents per patient or 2.1 incidents per patient year. Multiple fallbacks occurred in 170 patients. Fallback episodes lasted a mean of 10.3 d, requiring 4.6 dialysis treatments. Forty-five percent of fallbacks required hospitalization with a mean stay of 16.7 d. Access-related problems (33%) and nondialysis medical causes (32%) were the major causes of fallback. Resolution of the problem occurred in 87.8%, with the patient returning to the satellite. By the end of the study 77.3% were still satellite patients, 10.8% died, 3.8% returned to the regional center, 3.4% were transplanted, and 4.7% were transferred to other treatment modalities.
Fallbacks are common, yet the model operates well.
Comment In: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Mar;4(3):523-419261831
There have been huge advancements in the prophylaxis and treatment of stroke. The majority of patients who have a stroke are asymptomatic prior to the event. This makes it extremely important to identify high-risk patients and administer prophylaxis where appropriate. However, risk factors, prophylaxis and treatment strategies are less clear in dialysis patients due to the lack of studies. Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of experiencing a stroke and dying from it. More studies need to be done in this area. For now, modifiable risk factors such as blood pressure and nutrition, should be promoted and prophylaxis and treatment administered with extra vigilance due to these patients' increased bleeding risk.
One in every two haemodialysis nurses has reported musculoskeletal complaints concerning their hands, which is twice that reported for hospital nurses in general. It is possible that there is an association between the materials used by haemodialysis nurses and the occurrence of hand complaints.
To examine the association between the type of dialysis machine and disposables used with the occurrence of hand complaints among haemodialysis nurses. To compare occupational risks of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders based on the materials used for haemodialysis.
Two hundred and eighty-two nurses working in 27 haemodialysis centres in Sweden participated in a survey, and 19 nurses at five centres were observed during priming procedures.
Nurses supplied demographic data and answered the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Centre level data regarding machines and disposables used for haemodialysis during the past year were also collected.
There were no differences in the prevalence of hand complaints based on the type of haemodialysis machines, dialysers or tubing used. There were no differences found in physical exposure to the hands during priming, based on machine type used.
The results of this study could not reveal any association between disposable materials used and the occurrence of hand complaints among haemodialysis nurses. Additionally, there were no occupational risks detected based on the types of machines used. Hence, the results of the present study strongly indicate that a deeper ergonomic analysis of the work environment is needed to understand the prevalence of hand complaints among nurses working in haemodialysis settings.