The aim of the study was to investigate present and past morbidity in drug addicts, 25 years after hospitalisation for acute hepatitis B or hepatitis nonA-nonB. The hospital records for 214 consecutively admitted patients were analysed, and a follow-up study on 66 of the 144 patients still alive was performed. At follow-up, 1 of 54 (1.8%) hepatitis B patients was still HBsAg positive. Twelve patients originally diagnosed as hepatitis nonA-nonB were all among 54 found to be anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) positive, and the total anti-HCV prevalence was 81.8%. Twelve (22.2%) of the HCV cases were unknown before the follow-up examination. Four (6.1%) participants were anti-human immunodeficiency virus positive, only 1 was on antiretroviral therapy, and none had developed AIDS. Other chronic somatic diseases were a minor problem, whereas drug users reported skin infections as a frequent complication. Forty-three patients (65%) had abandoned addictive drugs since the hospital stay. Serious mental disorders were reported by 19 patients (28.8%), and 17 (25.8%) regarded themselves as present (9) and former (8) compulsive alcohol drinkers. A large proportion of the participants were granted disability pension (39%), a majority because of psychiatric disorders, drug and alcohol abuse.
The paper deals with the analysis of dynamics of working activity of 146 radically treated gastric cancer patients examined by the Oncological Commission for Ability Expertise of Novosibirsk in 1984-1988 and then followed for 2-5 years. The percentage of patients returning to work was the highest during the first and third years posttreatment. This was attributed to extension of temporary invalidity period and rehabilitation of group 2 invalids, respectively. Lethality among patients returning to work was 8.2 +/- 2.3% as compared to 62.6 +/- 2.5% in a group of 385 patients who did not work. Labor activity did not adversely influence the clinical course of disease. The unfavorable course was attributed to biological properties of tumor such as low degree of differentiation and infiltrative pattern of growth.
To assess quality of health care provided in a representative Canadian mental health service using conformance to evidence-based treatment recommendations, and to examine differences from published US results.
We used a cross-sectional cohort design involving a randomly selected sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia attending 1 of 3 mental health clinics in 1 Canadian regional health system. The sample size was calculated to detect differences with the US sample. Conformance criteria were based on a published protocol. Data were collected using patient interviews and a structured review of health records. Conformance to 9 key Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team recommendations was assessed.
Conformance ranged between 58% and 90% for pharmacological recommendations, and 0% to 81% for psychosocial recommendations. No patients who met criteria for assertive case management had been referred to an assertive case management team. Significant differences in conformance rates to some treatment recommendations were found between Canadian and published US results.
It proved possible to assess health care quality using process measures of conformance to treatment recommendations. Conformance to clinical recommendations for pharmacotherapy is higher than for psychosocial therapies. The absence of barriers to access for pharmacological therapies likely enhances the higher conformance to these recommendations. Limited or variable access to psychosocial services, specifically assertive community treatment, likely negatively affects conformance to psychosocial treatment recommendations. Methodological limitations preclude drawing conclusions on comparisons between Canadian and US services.
Comment In: Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;57(9):583; author reply 583-423073036
The aim of this study was to analyse how people who return to the labour market after long-term sickness absenteeism and subsequent job loss differ in employability, work ability, health, educational level, age, and gender, compared to those who do not.
The cohort consisted of 191 individuals, 20 men and 171 women, whose employment was terminated because they had not been able to return to their regular work after taking a long-term sick leave and rehabilitation measures.
This study is based on a postal questionnaire sent out to a cohort of previous employees in a Swedish municipality in 2008.
At the time of the survey, 39% of the respondents had returned to the labour market and the remaining 61% had not. Return to the labour market after a long-term sick leave was positively associated with male gender, young age, and work ability, i.e. the ability to work with respect to health and work-related demands. Employability, educational level, and health were not significantly associated with a return to the labour market.
In the discourse on employability, work ability is often neglected even though it is a central aspect of an individual's ability to obtain new employment.
PURPOSE: The primary objective was to study factors influencing post-injury employment and withdrawal from work in persons who sustained traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) more than 20 years ago. A secondary objective was to study life satisfaction in the same patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with retrospective data of 165 SCI-patients admitted to Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital 1961-1982. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors for obtaining work post-injury. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to study factors influencing early withdrawal from work, i.e. time from injury until discontinuing employment. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the participants were employed at some point after the injury. Thirty-five percent still had work at the time of the survey. The odds of obtaining work after injury were higher in persons of younger age at injury, higher in males versus females, higher for persons with paraplegia versus tetraplegia, and for persons classified as Frankel D-E compared to a more severe SCI. Factors associated with shorter time from injury until discontinuing employment were higher age at injury, incidence of injury after 1975 versus before, and a history of pre-injury medical condition(s). Life satisfaction was better for currently employed participants. CONCLUSION: The study indicates a low employment-rate in persons with SCI, even several years after injury. From the results, we suggest more support, especially to persons of older age at injury and/or with a history of pre-injury medical condition(s), to help them to obtain work and sustain employed for more years after injury.
Employment is an important part of recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. The employment rate for this group is as low as 10% in Norway, and major system related barriers to employment are evident.
This study reports the competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation study augmented with cognitive remediation (CR) or elements from cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also investigates if global functioning, self-esteem, and depression at baseline predicts employment outcome, and if change in these variables during the intervention period is associated with employment outcome.
One hundred and forty-eight participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in six Norwegian counties received 10 months vocational rehabilitation augmented with either CBT (n?=?84) or CR (n?=?64). Both competitive and sheltered workplaces were used. Participants were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and at 2-year follow-up.
At 2-year follow-up, 21.2% had obtained competitive employment. A further 25.3% had work placements in competitive workplaces. Significant improvements were found in global functioning, self-esteem, and depression during the intervention period, but no significant differences between the two intervention groups. High baseline global functioning and self-esteem, as well as positive change in these variables during the intervention period, were significantly associated with higher competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up.
The results add to existing evidence that competitive employment is attainable for individuals with schizophrenia. High global functioning and self-esteem were strongly associated with competitive employment outcome.
Fibromyalgia is a condition under dispute. Accepted by some as a major step forward in understanding some of the patients with widespread muscular pain, looked upon as a confusing side step by others. In 1988 fibromyalgia was by far the most frequent single diagnosis as a reason for disability pension in Norway. Disability statistics however show big differences between counties. Two neighbouring counties had among the lowest and the highest incidence of disability pensioners with the diagnosis fibromyalgia. New pensioners with fibromyalgia and some closely related diagnoses have been studied during the year 1988 by means of reading the insurance records. It became apparent that the difference between the two counties with respect to the incidence of fibromyalgia as a cause of disability pension could be explained by differences in diagnostic setting by the doctors and difference in the assessment from the insurance system, rather than real differences in morbidity pattern. Complaints from the musculoskeletal system is frequent and increasing in the population both as a reason for sick leave and disability pension. Whether this complicated and challenging situation is made more easy to handle by defining a subgroup of those persons as having "fibromyalgia" is questioned.
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in prediction of long-term outcome in first episode psychosis (FEP). METHOD: Eighty-one male and 72 female FEP patients were compared regarding the sensitivity and specificity of the Predictive Rating Scale (PRS). The contributions of pre-admission clinical and socio-demographic characteristics to a poor 5-year outcome were analysed for males and females separately. Gender differences in the relations between predictors and outcome were examined using the equality of correlation comparing correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the PRS was significantly better for males than for females. The following items: 'the highest Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) the year before first admission
To describe employment outcomes and assess the impact of personal and environmental factors on employment outcomes 2 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.
A prospective cohort of 100 patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury, aged 16-55 years, hospitalized in a Trauma Referral Centre during the period 2005-2007 and followed up at 1 and 2 years post-injury.
Variables of interest were divided into personal and environmental factors. Personal factors include socio-demographics (age, gender, education, work demands, marital status and child-care). Environmental factors included social (support by friends), institutional (number of rehabilitation services, need for well-coordinated healthcare services), and physical (access to own transportation) factors. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted with employment (working part-/full-time or studying) at 2-year follow-up as the dependent variable, and including independent variables based on significance from a univariate analysis, adjusting for injury severity.
At the 2-year follow-up, 44% of patients were employed. Patients with less severe injuries (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.2, p?=?0.03), those supported by friends (OR?=?3.5, p?=?0.07), those not in need of well-coordinated health services (OR?=?4.1, p?=?0.04), and patients driving a vehicle at the 1-year follow-up (OR?=?8.4, p?