In the present study, pure-tone audiometry was used in 687 Finnish school children, aged 6-15 years, to determine the prevalence of a 6 kHz acoustic dip and related factors among three age groups. Trained audiometricians tested air conduction thresholds in a sound-proof room. A total of 57 children (8.3%) had a clear-cut dip of at least 20 dB at 6 kHz. This dip was more pronounced in older children and in boys. A thorough case history was obtained by questionnaire, with logistic regression analysis showing that low birth weight (
The purpose of this study was to test the ability of Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) to distinguish between fearful (n = 145) and regularly attending (n = 156) Norwegian dental patients. The reliability of both instruments was high (Cronbach's alpha indices > 0.95). With DAS, 90% of the fearful patients and 85% of the reference patients were correctly assigned to their appropriate group. Thus it may be concluded that, when used on a Norwegian population, DAS is a valid instrument for distinguishing fearful patients from those regularly attending dental treatment. The corresponding figures for STAI-S were 80% for the fearful patients and 79% for the reference patients. Although not developed specifically for this purpose, this instrument may therefore still validly be used to distinguish between the groups. The correlation between the instruments was 0.76, indicating that to some extent they measure the same phenomenon.
Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.
A nation-wide sample of 1072 Norwegian adolescent psychiatric inpatients were followed up 15-33 (mean 23.8) years after hospitalisation, by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. Defining criminal behaviour as entry into the criminal registry, 481 patients (45%) had an adolescent criminal debut, entering the registry before the age of 21. Of these, 130 (27%) had no criminal record after the age of 21 and were consequently considered as adolescence-limited criminal offenders, as opposed to the remaining 351 (73%) individuals who continued their criminal behaviour beyond the age of 21 and were considered as life-course-persistent criminal offenders. On the basis of hospital records, all patients were rediagnosed according to DSM-IV and scored on factors hypothesised to have predictive power as to persistence of criminal behaviour. We found that 79.6% of the male, and 58.8% of the female adolescent delinquents went on to life-course-persistent criminality. In females, intravenous use of illegal drugs, and being discharged from the hospital elsewhere than to the family home, were strong and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminal behaviour. In males, the following were significant and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminality: a high number of conduct disorder criteria fulfilled, comorbidity of psychoactive substance use disorder, and having attended correctional school.
Based on a psyschosocial developmental framework, this study used a mixed model design, including both quantitative and qualitative methods, to examine the relationship between adolescents' psychosocial maturity and their alcohol use. A sample of 1,198 10th-grade students (51% female) was surveyed and followed up two years later. Both concurrent and longitudinal findings indicated that the more psychosocially mature adolescents were less likely to drink heavily than those who showed less maturity. At age 15 this relationship was even stronger for those whose peers also drank. Further, at age 17, this linear relationship was more pronounced for those who drank less heavily at age 15. Of the three psychosocial competencies examined, the construct of personal meaning was more strongly related to adolescent alcohol use than were the constructs of interpersonal understanding and interpersonal skills. To illustrate this construct, two of the adolescents were interviewed, a girl and a boy, individually at the end of both school years. Thematic and developmental analyses of the interviews revealed individual variations in how the adolescents made meaning of their drinking; these encourage speculations that go beyond the general pattern found in the study.
To examine disparities in hazardous and harmful drinking, illicit drug use, delinquency, and psychological distress among three immigrant generations of youth.
Data on 4,069 students were derived from the 2005 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a province-wide school-based survey of 7th to 12th graders. The survey employed a two-stage cluster design (school, class). Analyses include adjustments for the complex survey design, specifically stratification, clusters, and weights.
Both drug use and hazardous and harmful drinking increase across immigrant generations. First-generation youth report significantly less use than second-generation youth, who in turn report less use than third and later generations. Generational differences in the levels of hazardous and harmful drinking increase with age. Delinquency is significantly less among first-generation youth relative to youth of other immigrant generations. Symptoms of psychological distress are highest among first-generation youth compared to youth of other immigrant generations.
The nature of differences between foreign- and native-born adolescents varies across behaviours. As such, it is important to gain knowledge about the adjustment levels of these two groups with regard to specific components of well-being. Such knowledge is necessary for developing policies and programs to promote emotional and behavioural health.
This paper examines whether the relationship between parental work and adolescents' well-being would be mediated through parenting behaviour. The primary focus was on the experiences of adolescents. Questionnaire-based data from families (both parents and one children, n = 77) and adolescents (n = 126) were collected in Finland in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The adolescents were on average 14 years old. Results showed that the relationships between parents' negative work experiences and adolescents' depression (all perceived by adolescents) were partially mediated by adolescents' experience of lessened autonomy granting in parenting and increased conflicts between parents and adolescents. In addition, the relations between fathers' negative work experiences and adolescents' negative attitude regarding school (all reported by adolescents) were mediated by adolescents' perceptions of increased conflicts between fathers and adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between adolescent subjective well-being (SWB) and family dynamics perceived by adolescents and their parents. A sample of 239 pupils (51% female) from seventh and ninth grades completed the Berne questionnaire of SWB (youth form), two subscales from an original Finnish SWB scale and the Family Dynamics Measure II, and one of their parents (n = 239) filled in the Family Dynamics Measure II. Results indicated that parents assessed family dynamics better than did their adolescent child. Furthermore, there was no association between family dynamics perceived by adolescents and family dynamics assessed by one of their parents or between the adolescent SWB and parental perception of family dynamics. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that certain aspects of family dynamics perceived by adolescents were related to adolescent global satisfaction and ill-being. Specifically, adolescents' perception of high level of mutuality and stability in the family as well as male gender and lack of serious problems in family were predictors of adolescent global satisfaction. Furthermore, disorganization in the family and poor parental relationship perceived by adolescents, being female, serious problems and illness in family predicted a high level of adolescent global ill-being.
Shorter stature is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), but less is known about its association with extent of the disease.
We assessed the relationship between self-reported height and angiographic findings in 7706 men and 3572 women identified from a nationwide coronary angiography registry in Iceland.
After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a standard deviation decrease in height associated with a greater likelihood of significant CAD (defined as =50% luminal diameter stenosis) both in men (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 1.31; p = 3.2 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; p = 0.012). In partial proportional odds logistic regression models, a standard deviation decrease in height was associated with higher odds of having greater extent of CAD in men (ORadj = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.25; p = 1.5 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16; p = 0.014). When limited to patients with significant CAD, the association was statistically significant in men (ORadj = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14; p = 0.0022) but not in women (p = 0.56).
Our findings show that shorter stature is associated with greater extent of coronary atherosclerosis in a large unselected population of individuals undergoing coronary angiography. This relationship appears to be sex-dependent, with stronger effects in men than in women.
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66-96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges' Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (P
Cites: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999 Apr;54(4):M172-6 PMID 10219007
Cites: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Oct;61(10):1059-64 PMID 17077199