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319 records – page 1 of 32.

The 6 kHz acoustic dip in school-aged children in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216259
Source
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252(7):391-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
J. Haapaniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland.
Source
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252(7):391-4
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Audiometry, Pure-Tone
Auditory Threshold
Birth weight
Child
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hearing Loss, High-Frequency - epidemiology
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Measles - epidemiology
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
In the present study, pure-tone audiometry was used in 687 Finnish school children, aged 6-15 years, to determine the prevalence of a 6 kHz acoustic dip and related factors among three age groups. Trained audiometricians tested air conduction thresholds in a sound-proof room. A total of 57 children (8.3%) had a clear-cut dip of at least 20 dB at 6 kHz. This dip was more pronounced in older children and in boys. A thorough case history was obtained by questionnaire, with logistic regression analysis showing that low birth weight (
PubMed ID
8562032 View in PubMed
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Access to physician treatment for a mental disorder: a regional analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198775
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;35(2):61-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
H. Stuart
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. hh11@post.queensu.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;35(2):61-70
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Middle Aged
Physicians - supply & distribution
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study examined (1) disparities in the proportion of persons who accessed a physician for treatment of a diagnosed mental disorder across 17 health regions in Alberta, Canada, and (2) the extent to which regional disparities in physician access could be explained by differences in regional demographies, population needs, or physician supply.
The study illustrates the use of ecological comparisons for regional health system performance evaluations. Regional characteristics were aggregated from four sources of data: the health insurance registry file (population denominators and regional demographies), physician claims data (treatment access), census data (social indicators of population need), and the medical directory of the College of Physicians of Surgeons (physician supply).
Regional variability in needs-adjusted measures of access to physician-based treatment services were comparatively small (varying by a factor of 1.6). Models containing adjustments for demography, need, and physician supply explained 41% of regional variation in access. Of the total variation explained, physician supply explained a smaller proportion (39%) in comparison to social demography and needs (61%). Few large regional imbalances were noted when needs-adjusted and supply-adjusted estimates were compared. Only two areas appeared to be underserviced in comparison to their local needs, reflecting approximately 6% of the provincial population.
While all three study factors proved important, findings support the broad conclusion that social demography and social risk (a proxy for need) will remain the key determinants predicting access to physician services for treatment of mental disorders in publicly funded health systems.
PubMed ID
10784368 View in PubMed
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Acculturation status and hypertension among Asian immigrants in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190204
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002 Jun;56(6):455-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002

Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124918
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Publication Type
Article
Author
Leylâ Deger
Céline Plante
Louis Jacques
Sophie Goudreau
Stéphane Perron
John Hicks
Tom Kosatsky
Audrey Smargiassi
Author Affiliation
Direction de santé publique de l' Agence de las sante services sociaux de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Québec.
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Infant
Male
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22536578 View in PubMed
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Airways symptoms, immunological response and exposure in powder painting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15090
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Mar;78(2):123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Anna Blomqvist
Meltem Düzakin-Nystedt
Carl-Göran Ohlson
Lennart Andersson
Bo Jönsson
Jörn Nielsen
Hans Welinder
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Mar;78(2):123-31
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerosols - toxicity
Aged
Anhydrides - blood - immunology - urine
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Humans
Immunoglobulin G
Industry
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Lung Volume Measurements
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Paint - toxicity
Powders - toxicity
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - immunology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Powder painting is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitisation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder painters and to describe the exposure to OAAs. METHODS: In all, 205 subjects in 32 enterprises participated: 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers in 25 powder paint shops and 86 unexposed workers. They completed a questionnaire about working conditions and symptoms and took part in a medical examination, which included a lung function test. Urine samples, for determination of two OAAs, and blood samples, for analysis of specific antibodies against the OAAs, were taken. In addition, 33 paint samples were analysed for nine OAAs. RESULTS: The powder painters reported more work-related respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects did. The prevalence of three or more symptoms was 24% in subjects with low exposure, 44% in highly exposed individuals, 46% in formerly exposed subjects and 19% in unexposed workers. Asthma symptoms were frequent, 7%, 40%, 15% and 2%, respectively. Regression analyses of the lung volumes did not show any influence of exposure. IgG, but not IgE, against the OAAs and metabolites of OAAs was found in some subjects, but no associations with the exposure could be observed. OAAs were found in only small amounts in the paint samples. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to organic acid anhydrides was estimated to be low, and yet, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms from the eyes and the airways was relatively high among the powder painters, and these symptoms, but not the lung volumes, were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by irritative properties of the powder paint dust.
PubMed ID
15726393 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption among Alaskan drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3010
Source
Pages 447-453 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
- nificantly. No other main effects or interac- tions were found. In Table 4, a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed five variables to be signifi- cantly related (p < .05) to alcohol consumption. accounting for 9% of the variance. Positively related were: (a) greater perceived risk of get- ting
  1 document  
Author
Turner, S.J.
Paschane, D.M.
Johnson, M.E.
Fisher, D.G.
Fenaughty, A.M.
Author Affiliation
University of Alaska Anchorage, USA.
Source
Pages 447-453 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Date
1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Alaska - epidemiology
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Data Collection
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
This study investigated predictors of alcohol consumption among drug users not currently in treatment in Anchorage, Alaska. Data were collected from 114 female and 269 male drug users via structured interviews. Alcohol consumption was defined as estimated number of drinks consumed in the last 30 days. Results revealed a high proportion consuming alcohol within the last 48 hours and 30 days (73% and 96%, respectively). Stepwise multiple regression revealed that five variables, accounting for 9% of the variance, were significantly related to alcohol consumption. Positively related were greater perceived risk of getting AIDS; obtaining income from spouse, family, or friend; living on the streets or in a shelter; or living in a hotel or boarding house. Negatively related was having an education level greater than high school. For those participants who reported having sex during the last 30 days, two variables were positively related to alcohol consumption and accounted for 17% of the variance: numberof times used alcohol with sex and frequency of sex without a condom. In addition to identifying several demographic variables that are significantly related to alcohol consumption, the results document the relationship between alcohol consumption and unsafe sexual practices.
PubMed ID
10093323 View in PubMed
Documents
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Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use among Nova Scotia adolescents: implications for prevention and harm reduction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208430
Source
CMAJ. 1997 May 15;156(10):1387-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-1997
Author
C. Poulin
D. Elliott
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS. cpoulin@tupdean1.med.dal.ca
Source
CMAJ. 1997 May 15;156(10):1387-93
Date
May-15-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Health Education - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
School Health Services - organization & administration
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
To characterize adolescent drug use in terms of a risk continuum and to explore the rationale for harm reduction as a potential approach for school-based drug prevention.
Self-reported surveys, in 1991 and 1996, of adolescent students concerning their use of drugs, especially alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, and the harmful consequences of such use.
Nova Scotia.
A total of 3452 (in 1991) and 3790 (in 1996) junior and high school students in randomly selected classes in the public school system.
Prevalence of drug use and patterns of multiple drug use and of alcohol- and drug-related problems; independent risk factors for multiple drug use. The risk continuum for the response to alcohol problems was used as a policy framework.
The prevalence of cigarette smoking and the use of hallucinogens and stimulants was markedly higher in 1996 than in 1991. Over one-fifth (21.9%) of the students reported multiple drug use of alcohol and tobacco and cannabis in the 12 months before the 1996 survey. The 3 main subgroups--nonusers, users of alcohol only and users of multiple drugs--had distinct patterns of use, numbers of problems and risk factors. In all, 27.1% of the students had experienced at least 1 alcohol-related problem and 6% had experienced at least 1 drug-related problem in the 12 months before the 1996 survey.
There is a need for integrated school- and community-based drug prevention programs, with goals, strategies and outcome measures capturing the full spectrum of patterns of use and levels of risk among subgroups of the adolescent student population.
Notes
Comment In: CMAJ. 1997 May 15;156(10):1397-99164397
PubMed ID
9164396 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia as a mediator between childhood trauma and self-injurious behaviors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180738
Source
Child Abuse Negl. 2004 Mar;28(3):339-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Sandra C Paivio
Chantal R McCulloch
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont., Canada N9B 3P4.
Source
Child Abuse Negl. 2004 Mar;28(3):339-54
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Self-Assessment
Self-Injurious Behavior - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Students - psychology
Universities
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women.
The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1998], the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 [Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38 (1994) 23; Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38 (1994) 33], and the Self-Injurious Behaviors Questionnaire which assessed the lifetime frequency of six methods of superficial self-injury (hair pulling, head banging, punching, scratching, cutting, and burning). Regression analyses were used to test the proposed mediational model.
Forty-one percent of respondents reported having engaged in SIB; most engaged in multiple methods, and self-cutting was the most frequently endorsed method. Results of regression analyses supported the proposed mediational model for all types of maltreatment except sexual abuse. Sexual abuse, considered alone, was not significantly associated with alexithymia which precluded testing for mediational effects.
Results support a link between a history of childhood maltreatment and SIB among college women and the hypothesis that alexithymia mediates this relationship.
PubMed ID
15066350 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Swedish male breast cancer family data: a simple way to incorporate a common sibling effect.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21693
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1998;15(2):201-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
P M Karunaratne
R C Elston
N. Loman
H. Olsson
J. Ranstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1998;15(2):201-12
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
BRCA2 Protein
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Breast Neoplasms, Male - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Family Health
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Models, Statistical
Mutation
Neoplasm Proteins - genetics
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Transcription Factors - genetics
Abstract
Based on a population-based cohort study, Olsson et al. [1993] found significant evidence for elevated incidence of breast and ovarian cancers among female first-degree relatives of men with breast cancer. Using an extension of logistic regressive models we investigate whether, after allowing for multifactorial familial correlations, single locus segregation could be the cause of the elevated incidence in these families. The logit for a given sib in the class D logistic regressive model depends on the order in which affected sibs occur in a sibship. That makes the model less appropriate for the situation where a polygenic component or a common sibling environment may be present, as well as being computationally cumbersome. In this paper, we propose to use the proportion of siblings in a sibship who are affected to quantify a sibling correlation. That not only relaxes the interchangeability problem but also makes the model computationally efficient. We then use this modified class D logistic regressive model for our segregation analysis. Using the proportion of siblings in a sibship who are affected as a covariate resulted in a significantly higher likelihoods in all the models we investigated. We found evidence for a dominant Mendelian gene leading to early age of onset of breast and/or ovarian cancer. This could either be a germline mutation of BRCA2 or a mutation in a gene different from BRCA2.
PubMed ID
9554557 View in PubMed
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Anemia in the general population: prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic impact.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103067
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul;29(7):489-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Andreas Martinsson
Charlotte Andersson
Pontus Andell
Sasha Koul
Gunnar Engström
J Gustav Smith
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, andreas.martinsson@med.lu.se.
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul;29(7):489-98
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anemia - mortality
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Erythrocyte Volume
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Low hemoglobin concentration is associated with increased mortality, but there is disagreement with regard to the clinical definition of anemia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical correlates and association with total and cause-specific long-term mortality across the hemoglobin distribution and for previously proposed definitions of anemia. Blood hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume was measured in participants of the Malmö diet and cancer study-a prospective cohort study, and related to baseline characteristics and outcomes during follow-up. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cancer-related mortality. A U-shaped association of hemoglobin with total mortality was observed in spline regression analyses, with nadir at hemoglobin 150 g/L among men and 130 g/L among women. Mortality increased steeply with more strict definitions of anemia, hazard ratio: 1.36, 1.94 and 2.16 for hemoglobin
PubMed ID
24952166 View in PubMed
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319 records – page 1 of 32.