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Accuracy and consistency of quadratic odds estimates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225712
Source
Fam Pract. 1991 Sep;8(3):269-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1991
Author
B W Smith
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Practice, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.
Source
Fam Pract. 1991 Sep;8(3):269-75
Date
Sep-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family Practice
Female
Health Services Research - methods
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Michigan - epidemiology
Models, Statistical
Odds Ratio
Office Visits
Ontario
Probability
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
In medical practices that do not have rosters, only the number of patients who come to the practice can be enumerated: the number who might have visited if they had had a reason to do so remains unknown. The Quadratic Odds Estimator is a technique for estimating the total number of patients cared for by a primary care medical practice, including the non-visitors. A revised version of the model is shown to have an error of less than 1% in predicting the number of patients at risk of visiting a primary care medical practice. Aggregate and sex-specific estimates of total practice size are shown to be comparable to within 2%. The model estimates the prevalence of hypertension among the patients of two family practice resdencies as 18 and 11%. The rationale for employing unconventional regression weights and dual regressions is explained.
PubMed ID
1959728 View in PubMed
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Acute illnesses in children. A description and analysis of the cumulative incidence proportion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36143
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1993 Sep;11(3):202-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1993
Author
B W Hansen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Department of General Practice, Odense, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1993 Sep;11(3):202-6
Date
Sep-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease - epidemiology
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Models, Statistical
Morbidity
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Recurrence
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Social Conditions
Abstract
OBJECTIVES--To describe parent-reported morbidity in relation to the psycho-social conditions of the families and to characterize families whose children are frequently ill. DESIGN--The parent-reported morbidity in a two-month prospective period, and the psychosocial conditions of the families were registered by means of a questionnaire. The conditioned probability of parents' reporting an episode of illness was estimated by means of logistic regression analysis, taking the psycho-social conditions into consideration. SETTING--18,949 families with at least one child under the age of 8 years, resident in the County of Ringkjøbing in western Denmark at 1 March 1988. SUBJECTS--An age-stratified random sample of 1982 families was entered in the study. 1588 (82%) families returned the questionnaire. RESULTS--The parents reported considerable morbidity in their children. The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) for the period was 48%. The multivariate analysis of the parent-reported morbidity led to the following main results: 1) the morbidity was greatest for children aged 6 to 18 months, after which it decreased with age, 2) there was interaction between the care conditions and the child's age--CIP for children up to two years was largest for the children who were cared for in daycare, while the CIP for the older children was largest for the children who were cared for at home, 3) if the parents reported that the child's siblings suffered from chronic or frequently recurring morbidity, the child's morbidity rate was significantly increased, 4) mothers with higher education reported more morbidity in their children than mothers without this education, and 5) parents with a high perception of the general health threat ("worried" parents) reported more morbidity than did parents with a low perception. CONCLUSIONS--The results made it possible to characterize families whose children were frequently reported ill.
PubMed ID
8272653 View in PubMed
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Adjusting outcome measurements for case-mix in a vascular surgical register--is it possible and desirable?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48246
Source
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1996 Nov;12(4):459-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1996
Author
J. Elfström
T. Troëng
A. Stubberöd
Author Affiliation
Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1996 Nov;12(4):459-63
Date
Nov-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Amputation - statistics & numerical data
Arterial Occlusive Diseases - mortality - surgery
Chi-Square Distribution
Diagnosis-Related Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Leg - blood supply
Male
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Vascular Patency
Vascular Surgical Procedures - statistics & numerical data
Veins - transplantation
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We analysed the variation in the outcome of infrainguinal bypass surgery between departments in a register for clinical audit to see if variation in case-mix influenced the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective analysis of 764 infrainguinal bypass operations performed from 1988 to 1990 at six Swedish surgical departments. Results were assessed at 30 days and at 1 year postoperatively. RESULTS: There was a significant variation (p
Notes
Comment In: Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1998 Jul;16(1):879715725
PubMed ID
8980438 View in PubMed
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Adolescents alcohol-use and economic conditions: a multilevel analysis of data from a period with big economic changes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146664
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Mikael Svensson
Curt Hagquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Swedish Business School, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. mikael.svensson@oru.se
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - economics - epidemiology
Alcoholism - economics - epidemiology
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - economics
Sweden
Time Factors
Unemployment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper examines how the unemployment rate is related to adolescent alcohol use and experience of binge drinking during a time period characterized by big societal changes. The paper uses repeated cross-sectional adolescent survey data from a Swedish region, collected in 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2002 and 2005, and merges this with data on local unemployment rates for the same time periods. Individual level frequency of alcohol use as well as experience of binge drinking is connected to local level unemployment rate to estimate the relationship using multilevel modeling. The model includes municipality effects controlling for time-invariant differences between municipalities as well as year fixed effects controlling for municipality-invariant changes over time in alcohol use. The results show that the unemployment rate is negatively associated with adolescents' alcohol use and the experience of binge drinking. When the unemployment rate increases, more adolescents do not drink at all. Regular drinking (twice per month or more) is, on the other hand, unrelated to the unemployment rate. Examining gender-differences in the relationship, it is shown that the results are driven by behavior in girls, whereas drinking among boys does not show any significant relationship with changes in the unemployment rate.
PubMed ID
20012126 View in PubMed
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Adult height associates with angiographic extent of coronary artery disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287853
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:237-241
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Eythor Bjornsson
Gudmundur Thorgeirsson
Thorarinn Gudnason
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:237-241
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Atherosclerosis - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Body Height
Coronary Angiography
Coronary Artery Disease - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Iceland
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sample Size
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Shorter stature is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), but less is known about its association with extent of the disease.
We assessed the relationship between self-reported height and angiographic findings in 7706 men and 3572 women identified from a nationwide coronary angiography registry in Iceland.
After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a standard deviation decrease in height associated with a greater likelihood of significant CAD (defined as =50% luminal diameter stenosis) both in men (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 1.31; p = 3.2 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; p = 0.012). In partial proportional odds logistic regression models, a standard deviation decrease in height was associated with higher odds of having greater extent of CAD in men (ORadj = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.25; p = 1.5 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16; p = 0.014). When limited to patients with significant CAD, the association was statistically significant in men (ORadj = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14; p = 0.0022) but not in women (p = 0.56).
Our findings show that shorter stature is associated with greater extent of coronary atherosclerosis in a large unselected population of individuals undergoing coronary angiography. This relationship appears to be sex-dependent, with stronger effects in men than in women.
PubMed ID
27582429 View in PubMed
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Age and meanings of violence: women's experiences of partner violence in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182328
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2004 Jan;19(1):30-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004
Author
Minna Piispa
Author Affiliation
Statistics Finland.
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2004 Jan;19(1):30-48
Date
Jan-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Chi-Square Distribution
Culture
Data Collection - statistics & numerical data
Emotions - physiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Change Events
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Self Disclosure
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as making women vulnerable to spousal violence, such as having children, cohabiting, low educational level, and financial dependency on the male partner, failed to explain partnership violence against women in Finland as such, too. The author's objective is to find out whether meanings of violence have changed and whether this could be one reason why young women report in a survey such cases of violence that other women would not. This could explain why violence in partnerships is so common among young women in Finland.
PubMed ID
14680528 View in PubMed
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Age at first alcohol use: a risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198774
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):745-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
D J DeWit
E M Adlaf
D R Offord
A C Ogborne
Author Affiliation
Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario, Canada. ddewitt@julian.uwo.ca
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):745-50
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcohol-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Preventive Health Services
Proportional Hazards Models
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Survival Analysis
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the natural course of DSM-III-R alcohol disorders as a function of age at first alcohol use and to investigate the influence of early use as a risk factor for progression to the development of alcohol disorders, exclusive of the effect of confounding influences.
Data were obtained from a community sample (N=5,856) of lifetime drinkers participating in the 1990-1991 Mental Health Supplement of the Ontario Health Survey.
Survival analyses revealed a rapid progression to alcohol-related harm among those who reported having their first drink at ages 11-14. After 10 years, 13.5% of the subjects who began to drink at ages 11 and 12 met the criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, and 15.9% had a diagnosis of dependence. Rates for subjects who began to drink at ages 13 and 14 were 13.7% and 9.0%, respectively. In contrast, rates for those who started drinking at ages 19 and older were 2.0% and 1.0%. Unexpectedly, a delay in progression to harm was observed for the youngest drinkers (ages 10 and under). Hazard regression analyses revealed a nonlinear effect of age at first alcohol use, marked by an elevated risk of developing disorders among subjects first using alcohol at ages 11-14.
First use of alcohol at ages 11-14 greatly heightens the risk of progression to the development of alcohol disorders and therefore is a reasonable target for intervention strategies that seek to delay first use as a means of averting problems later in life.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Sep;158(9):153011532753
PubMed ID
10784467 View in PubMed
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Age-related accident risks: longitudinal study of Swedish iron ore miners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210969
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Oct;30(4):479-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
L. Laflamme
V L Blank
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Oct;30(4):479-87
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Age Factors
Back Injuries
Bone and Bones - injuries
Contusions - epidemiology
Craniocerebral Trauma - epidemiology
Efficiency
Facial Injuries - epidemiology
Hand Injuries - epidemiology
Humans
Iron
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Mining - classification - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sprains and Strains - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Workload
Abstract
The study investigated whether occupational accident risks were equally distributed across age categories over time in the context of production reorganization and work rationalization in a Swedish iron ore mine between 1980 and 1993. Three phases of reorganization, defined by productivity levels, and four age categories were related to age-related accident risk ratios using the Poisson-regression method. Accident risk ratios (ARRs) were found systematically to be higher during the two first phases and also for younger workers, in the cases of both nonspecific and specific accident risks. The steady reduction in accident rates observed did not favor all age groups of workers to the same extent. For two accident patterns out of five, workers in their thirties and forties recorded higher ARRs than those in their fifties.
PubMed ID
8892554 View in PubMed
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The alcohol-tobacco relationship: a prospective study among adolescents in six European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9576
Source
Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1755-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
J J L Wetzels
S P J Kremers
P D Vitória
H. de Vries
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Source
Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1755-63
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
AIM: This study examined the earliest stages in drug involvement, in terms of the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use, among adolescents from six European countries (Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom). International, gender and age differences were studied. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A large international sample of European adolescents (n = 10170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Data were gathered in the autumn terms of 1998 and 1999 by means of self-administered questionnaires. MEASURES: Adolescents' self-reports on smoking and alcohol behaviour were used. Both behaviours were classified into two categories, that of adolescents who had never used the substance and that of those who had used the substance at least once in their lives. Logistic regression was used to determine which substance was the best predictor of the subsequent use of the other substance. FINDINGS: Alcohol use and tobacco use were found to be associated with each other reciprocally. Results revealed that in Europe as a whole, tobacco use predicted subsequent alcohol use better than the converse. However, for Dutch girls, alcohol use predicted subsequent smoking behaviour better than the converse. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the development of alcohol and tobacco use patterns are closely related, but the order of progression is not universal and may reflect cultural factors.
PubMed ID
14651508 View in PubMed
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ALOX5AP gene and the PDE4D gene in a central European population of stroke patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176042
Source
Stroke. 2005 Apr;36(4):731-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Elin Lõhmussaar
Andreas Gschwendtner
Jakob C Mueller
Tõnis Org
Erich Wichmann
Gerhard Hamann
Thomas Meitinger
Martin Dichgans
Author Affiliation
Institutes of Human Genetics, GSF-National Research Institute for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
Source
Stroke. 2005 Apr;36(4):731-6
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases - genetics
5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins
Aged
Alleles
Carrier Proteins - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4
Edetic Acid - chemistry
Europe, Eastern
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic markers
Genotype
Haplotypes
Humans
Iceland
Ischemia
Linkage Disequilibrium
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Microsatellite Repeats
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Regression Analysis
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Stroke - genetics
Abstract
Recent evidence has implicated the genes for 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as susceptibility genes for stroke in the Icelandic population. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of these genes in a central European population of stroke patients.
A total of 639 consecutive stroke patients and 736 unrelated population-based controls that had been matched for age and sex were examined using a case-control design. Twenty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering ALOX5AP were genotyped. For PDE4D, microsatellite AC008818-1 and 12 SNPs, which tag all common haplotypes in previously identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, were analyzed.
A nominally significant association with stroke was observed with several SNPs from ALOX5AP, including SNP SG13S114, which had been part of the Icelandic at-risk haplotype. Associations were stronger in males than in females, with SG13S114 (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.55; P=0.017) and SG13S100 (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54; P=0.024) showing the strongest associations. No significant associations were detected with single markers and haplotypes in PDE4D. The frequencies of single-marker alleles and haplotypes differed largely from those in the Icelandic population.
The present study suggests that sequence variants in the ALOX5AP gene are significantly associated with stroke, particularly in males. Variants in the PDE4D gene are not a major risk factor for stroke in individuals from central Europe. Population differences in allele and haplotype frequencies as well as LD structure may contribute to the observed differences between populations.
PubMed ID
15731479 View in PubMed
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259 records – page 1 of 26.