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Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper in maternal blood and developmental placental tissue: differences between Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198281
Source
Environ Res. 2000 May;83(1):54-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
M. Kantola
R. Purkunen
P. Kröger
A. Tooming
J. Juravskaja
M. Pasanen
S. Saarikoski
T. Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. marjatta.kantola@uku.fi
Source
Environ Res. 2000 May;83(1):54-66
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase - metabolism
Birth Weight - drug effects
Cadmium - analysis - blood
Copper - analysis - blood
Drug Interactions
Estonia
Female
Finland
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Placenta - chemistry - enzymology
Pregnancy - blood
Pregnancy Trimester, First - blood
Regression Analysis
Russia
Smoking - blood - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - blood
Abstract
Cadmium, zinc, and copper from placental tissue and blood samples at the first trimester (n = 64) and at term (n = 152) were analyzed; the welfare of newborns and placental 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities in vitro were determined. The study material was collected from Finland, Estonia, and Russia. The results demonstrate that Cd starts to accumulate in the placenta during the first trimester and that Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher at the first trimester than at term. Among nonsmokers a negative correlation was found between placental Cu content and birth weight of neonates. Among smokers a positive correlation between placental Zn content and birth weight and ECOD activity was found. The birth weights correlated inversely with the length of time the mothers smoked. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the samples collected from St. Petersburg. The data demonstrate an inverse accumulation of Zn and Cd throughout the pregnancy in the placenta and maternal blood samples. Zn may act as a positive marker or even an enzymatic enhancement for the human placental vital functions. Smoking, parity, age, and especially the place of residence affect the Cd, Zn, and Cu contents and ratios in placenta and mother's blood.
PubMed ID
10845782 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115100
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 1;177(9):1015-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2013
Author
Willy Eriksen
Jon M Sundet
Kristian Tambs
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 1;177(9):1015-9
Date
May-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Birth Certificates
Body Height - genetics
Cohort Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Regression Analysis
Siblings
Twins
Young Adult
Abstract
In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.
PubMed ID
23543161 View in PubMed
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Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126516
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31746
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Toomas Timpka
Olle Eriksson
Armin Spreco
Elin A Gursky
Magnus Strömgren
Einar Holm
Joakim Ekberg
Orjan Dahlström
Lars Valter
Henrik Eriksson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden. toomas.timpka@liu.se
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31746
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - physiopathology
Male
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Sweden
Abstract
An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
22384066 View in PubMed
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Alterations of visual evoked potentials in preschool Inuit children exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls from a marine diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82445
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Saint-Amour Dave
Roy Marie-Sylvie
Bastien Célyne
Ayotte Pierre
Dewailly Eric
Després Christine
Gingras Suzanne
Muckle Gina
Author Affiliation
Département d'ophtalmologie, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175, Côte Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Que., Canada H3T 1C5.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):567-78
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Diet
Evoked Potentials, Visual - drug effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - pharmacology
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reaction Time - drug effects - physiology
Regression Analysis
Selenium - pharmacology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury on visual brain processing in Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada). Concentrations of total mercury in blood and PCB 153 in plasma had been measured at birth and they were again measured at the time of testing in 102 preschool aged children. Relationships between contaminants and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were assessed by multivariate regression analyses, taking into account several potential confounding variables. The possible protective effects of selenium and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against methylmercury and PCB toxicity were also investigated. Results indicate that exposure to methylmercury and PCBs resulting from fish and sea mammal consumption were associated with alterations of VEP responses, especially for the latency of the N75 and of the P100 components. In contrast, the concomitant intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with a shorter latency of the P100. However, no significant interactions between nutrients and contaminants were found, contradicting the notion that these nutrients could afford protection against environmental neurotoxicants. Interestingly, significant associations were found with concentrations of neurotoxicants in blood samples collected at the time of testing, i.e. at the preschool age. Our findings suggest that VEP can be used as a valuable tool to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental contaminants in fish-eating populations.
PubMed ID
16620993 View in PubMed
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Analysis of exogenous components of mortality risks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205323
Source
Risk Anal. 1998 Apr;18(2):221-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1998
Author
V L Blinkin
Author Affiliation
Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Source
Risk Anal. 1998 Apr;18(2):221-7
Date
Apr-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Moscow - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Risk
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
A new technique for deriving exogenous components of mortality risks from national vital statistics has been developed. Each observed death rate Dij (where i corresponds to calendar time (year or interval of years) and j denotes the number of corresponding age group) was represented as Dij = Aj + BiCj, and unknown quantities Aj, Bi, and Cj were estimated by a special procedure using the least-squares principle. The coefficients of variation do not exceed 10%. It is shown that the term Aj can be interpreted as the endogenous and the second term BiCj as the exogenous components of the death rate. The aggregate of endogenous components Aj can be described by a regression function, corresponding to the Gompertz-Makeham law, A(tau) = gamma + beta x e alpha tau, where gamma, beta, and alpha are constants, tau is age, A(tau) [symbol: see text] tau = tau j identical to A(tau j) identical to Aj and tau j is the value of age tau in jth age group. The coefficients of variation for such a representation does not exceed 4%. An analysis of exogenous risk levels in the Moscow and Russian populations during 1980-1995 shows that since 1992 all components of exogenous risk in the Moscow population had been increasing up to 1994. The greatest contribution to the total level of exogenous risk was lethal diseases, and their death rate was 387 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1994, i.e., 61.9% of all deaths. The dynamics of exogenous mortality risk change during 1990-1994 in the Moscow population and in the Russian population without Moscow had been identical: the risk had been increasing and its value in the Russian population had been higher than that in the Moscow population.
PubMed ID
9637078 View in PubMed
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Analyzing sibship correlations in birth weight using large sibships from Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52712
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1997;14(4):423-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
T H Beaty
R. Skjaerven
D R Breazeale
K Y Liang
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1997;14(4):423-33
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth Certificates
Birth weight
Cluster analysis
Female
Genotype
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Likelihood Functions
Linear Models
Male
Maternal Age
Models, Statistical
Norway
Nuclear Family
Parity
Pregnancy
Registries
Regression Analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were used to estimate sibship correlations in large sibships (each with > or = 5 infants among singleton live births surviving the first year of life), while adjusting for covariates such as infant gender, gestational age, maternal age, parity, and time since last pregnancy. This sample of 12,356 full sibs in 2,462 sibships born in Norway between 1968 and 1989 was selected to maximize the information on parity, and a robust approach to estimating both regression coefficients and the sibship correlation using generalized estimating equations (GEE) was employed. In concordance with previous studies, these data showed a high overall correlation in birth weight among full sibs (0.48 +/- 0.01), but this sibship correlation was influenced by parity. In particular, the correlation between the firstborn infant and a subsequent infant was slightly lower than between two subsequent sibs (0.44 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.01, respectively). The effect of time between pregnancies was statistically significant, but its predicted impact was modest over the period in which most of these large families were completed. While these data cannot discriminate whether factors influencing birth weight are maternal or fetal in nature, this analysis does illustrate how robust statistical models can be used to estimate sibship correlations while adjusting for covariates in family studies.
PubMed ID
9271714 View in PubMed
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An observational study comparing 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance with fasting plasma glucose in pregnant women: both poorly predictive of birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186618
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Feb 18;168(4):403-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-18-2003
Author
Christian Ouzilleau
Marie-Andrée Roy
Louiselle Leblanc
André Carpentier
Pierre Maheux
Author Affiliation
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC.
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Feb 18;168(4):403-9
Date
Feb-18-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Diabetes, Gestational - blood - drug therapy - epidemiology
Fasting - blood
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gestational Age
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Infant, Newborn
Insulin - therapeutic use
Male
Mass Screening
Maternal Welfare
Parity
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Quebec
ROC Curve
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Smoking
Statistics as Topic
Abstract
The definition and treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy are matters of intense controversy. Our goal was to examine the value of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in terms of its ability to predict birth weight percentile in a group of women with singleton pregnancies who received minimal treatment for their glucose intolerance.
We reviewed the results of OGTTs performed between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation in a group of 300 consecutive high-risk women (mean age 29.5 years [95% confidence interval, CI, 28.9-30.1]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.4-1.7]) whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a randomly administered 50-g glucose load was 8.0 mmol/L or above. These data were compared with results for a randomly selected control group of 300 women whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a 50-g glucose load was less than 8.0 mmol/L (mean age 28.0 years [95% CI 27.4-28.6]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.3-1.6]).
For 76 (25.3%) of the 300 high-risk women, the plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g glucose load (confirmatory OGTT) was 7.8 mmol/L or more, but only 6 of these were treated with insulin, which emphasizes the low level of intervention in this group. Thirty (10.0%) of the neonates in this group were large for gestational age (LGA; adjusted weight at or above the 90th percentile). This proportion did not significantly differ from the proportion for the control group (25 or 8.3%). After exclusion of the 6 insulin-treated women, simple correlations between birth weight percentile and fasting or 2-hour plasma glucose levels were very weak (r = 0.23 and 0.16 respectively; p
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 Feb 18;168(4):421-512591782
Comment In: CMAJ. 2003 Feb 18;168(4):429-3112591783
PubMed ID
12591779 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic use and type 1 diabetes in childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89554
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 May 1;169(9):1079-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2009
Author
Hviid Anders
Svanström Henrik
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen S, Denmark. aii@ssi.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 May 1;169(9):1079-84
Date
May-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - adverse effects - classification - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - etiology
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Registries
Regression Analysis
Abstract
Indirect evidence is accumulating for an association between antibiotic use, especially in early childhood, and long-term immunologic health. The authors evaluated the association between antibiotic use in childhood and subsequent development of type 1 diabetes. A nationwide cohort study of all Danish singleton children born during 1995-2003 (n = 606,420) was conducted. Incidence rate ratios for type 1 diabetes comparing children according to antibiotic use were estimated. Antibiotic use was classified according to class, number of uses, and age at use. Use of any antibiotic was not associated with type 1 diabetes (rate ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.50). Evaluation of type 1 diabetes risk according to number of courses of any antibiotic yielded no association between antibiotic use and type 1 diabetes, with an increase in rate ratio per course of 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.07). No specific class of antibiotics was associated with type 1 diabetes, no specific age of use was associated with type 1 diabetes, and no specific age at onset of type 1 diabetes was associated with antibiotics. In a large nationwide prospective study, no association between antibiotic use and type 1 diabetes was found among Danish children.
PubMed ID
19318617 View in PubMed
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[Approaches to the study of the incidence of benign tumors in the pediatric population]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24647
Source
Vopr Onkol. 1992;38(8):969-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
S K Pinaev
V I Kustov
N E Kosykh
Source
Vopr Onkol. 1992;38(8):969-74
Date
1992
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous
Neoplasms - congenital - epidemiology
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Occurrence of benign tumors in large pediatric population have never been studied. Basing on the data on the pediatric population of Khabarovsk, the authors developed a method of improved analysis of benign tumor morbidity. The method suggests the use of case histories as well as medical check-up data. Mathematical modelling was employed to compare primary incidence and occurrence indexes. The improved mean incidence of benign tumors in children for 1985-1989 was 66.8 cases and improved occurrence--174.2 per 10,000 children. The values are by the order of magnitude higher than those reported by hospitals.
PubMed ID
1300808 View in PubMed
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259 records – page 1 of 26.