The link between physical activity (PA) and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels in this regard, where PA level has been measured objectively. The main aims were therefore to assess the level of accelerometer-determined PA and to examine its associations with self-reported health in a population of Norwegian older adults (65-85 years).
This was a part of a national multicenter study. Participants for the initial study were randomly selected from the national population registry, and the current study included those of the initial sample aged 65-85 years. The ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer was used to measure PA for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire was used to register self-reported health. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments were used for comparisons between multiple groups.
A total of 560 participants had valid activity registrations. Mean age (SD) was 71.8 (5.6) years for women (n=282) and 71.7 (5.2) years for men (n=278). Overall PA level (cpm) differed considerably between the age groups where the oldest (80-85 y) displayed a 50% lower activity level compared to the youngest (65-70 y). No sex differences were observed in overall PA within each age group. Significantly more men spent time being sedentary (65-69 and 70-74 years) and achieved more minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (75-79 years) compared to women. Significantly more women (except for the oldest), spent more minutes of low-intensity PA compared to men. PA differed across levels of self-reported health and a 51% higher overall PA level was registered in those, with "very good health" compared to those with "poor/very poor health".
Norwegian older adults PA levels differed by age. Overall, the elderly spent 66% of their time being sedentary and only 3% in MVPA. Twenty one percent of the participants fulfilled the current Norwegian PA recommendations. Overall PA levels were associated with self-reported health.
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PURPOSE: To identify factors that influence American and Icelandic parents' health perceptions among families of infants or young children with asthma. DESIGN: A cross-sectional research design of 76 American families and 103 Icelandic families. Data were collected mainly in the Midwest of the United States (US) and in Iceland from August 1996 through January 2000. METHOD: Parents in these two countries who had children aged 6 or younger with chronic asthma completed questionnaires regarding family demands, caregiving demands, family hardiness, sense of coherence, and health perceptions. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and t tests were compiled. Multiple regression analysis was used to test path models and for mediation. FINDINGS: American parents differed from their Icelandic counterparts in family hardiness. In both countries, significant differences were found in caregiving demands and health perceptions between mothers and fathers. Illness severity and caregiving demands affected health perceptions of both mothers and fathers. Sense of coherence mediated the relationship between family demands and parents' perceptions for both parents. For mothers only, family hardiness mediated the relationship between family demands and health perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation was useful for building knowledge on parents' health perceptions in two Western cultures for families of young children with asthma. Interventions emphasizing family and individual resiliency and strengths have the potential to affect parents' views of their children's health.
The authors elaborated a medical and ecologic questionnaire for specific history. The questionnaire was applied to express-evaluation of public health state and environmental factors in the certain settlement. The health state was proved to be influenced significantly by occupational conditions, hardiness and intensity of work, psychologic climate. The most hazardous environmental factors are: unsatisfactory quality of drinkable water, air pollution and traffic noise. The lifestyle of the population examined is strongly associated with bad habits (smoking, short sleep, alcohol abuse).
The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the oral health status, treatment needs, and cost of treatment for Head Start children in Alaska. Twenty communities, representing five regions within the state, were selected for participation. The study consisted of three distinct parts: a caries status exam, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a treatment needs examination. A total of 544 children between three and five years old were examined. The mean dmft and dmfs scores were 3.91 and 8.73, respectively. When stratified by race, the Alaska Native children had significantly higher mean dmft and dmfs scores. When stratified by community of residence, those children residing in the rural communities had higher rates of dental caries than the urban children. Forty-five percent of the total sample was in need of dental restorative treatment, excluding examinations, radiographs, and preventive services. The proportion of rural children needing care was much higher than the urban children (59% vs 27%). On average, each urban child needed treatment on 0.7 teeth, while each rural child needed treatment on 2.8 teeth. When all treatment factors including sedation and transportation costs are considered, the potential cost of treatment for the 1,475 children enrolled in the Alaska Head Start programs was $601,624.
Good housing solutions are important for the ageing population in order to promote health and maintain functional ability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how objective and perceived aspects of housing were related to perceived health among ADL independent and ADL dependent groups of older, single-living people within three national samples.
The current study was based on national samples (German, n = 450; Latvian, n = 303; Swedish, n = 397) from the European ENABLE-AGE Project, using data on ADL dependence, perceived health, objective and perceived aspects of housing. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate ordinal regression models were used to analyze the data.
The participants in the ADL dependent groups generally were older, had more functional limitations and perceived their health as poorer compared to ADL independent groups. With regard to perceived housing, usability as well as meaning of home indicators was often lower in the ADL dependent groups, housing satisfaction was at the same level while housing-related external control beliefs were higher. The differences among the national samples were highly significant for both ADL groups, for all variables except number of outdoor environmental barriers in the ADL independent groups. The relations between perceived health on one hand and objective and perceived aspects of housing on the other show great diversities among the ADL groups and the national samples.
The results serve to alert health care practitioners that it is important to draw attention to how older people perceive their housing situation and to the fact that different levels of functional independence demand different interventions.
Motor disturbances and disturbed self-recognition are common features that affect mobility in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Physiotherapists in Scandinavia assess and treat movement difficulties in persons with severe mental illness. The Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E) is a new and shortened version of the commonly used Body Awareness Scale-Health (BAS-H). The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability and the concurrent validity of BAS MQ-E in persons with severe mental illness. The concurrent validity was examined by investigating the relationships between neurological soft signs, alexithymia, fatigue, anxiety, and mastery. Sixty-two persons with severe mental illness participated in the study. The results showed a satisfactory inter-rater reliability (n = 53) and a concurrent validity (n = 62) with neurological soft signs, especially cognitive and perceptual based signs. There was also a concurrent validity linked to physical fatigue and aspects of alexithymia. The scores of BAS MQ-E were in general higher for persons with schizophrenia compared to persons with other diagnoses within the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder. The clinical implications are presented in the discussion.
Self-reported screen time is associated with elevated health risk in children and youth; however, research examining the relationship between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and health risk has reported mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth.
The results are based on 1,608 children and youth aged 6 to 19 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Sedentary time was measured using the Actical accelerometer. Breaks in sedentary time and prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting 20 to 120 minutes were derived for all days, weekend days and during the after-school period (i.e., after 3 pm on weekdays). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between patterns of sedentary time and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol.
Boys accumulated more sedentary time on weekdays after 3 pm and had a higher number of breaks in sedentary time compared to girls. Overweight/obese boys (aged 6-19 years) accumulated more sedentary time after 3 pm on weekdays (282 vs. 259 min, p
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical fitness, and physical activity in older patients after recent discharge from hospital. One hundred fifteen independent-living older adults (ages 70-92 years) were included. HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), and physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) were measured 2-4 weeks after discharge. Higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness were correlated with higher self-reported HRQOL. Although cause and effect cannot be determined from this study, the results suggest that a particular focus on the value of physical activity and physical fitness while in hospital and when discharged from hospital may be important to encourage patients to actively preserve independence and HRQOL. It may be especially important to target those with lower levels of physical activity, poorer physical fitness, and multiple comorbidities.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between grades of neck pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), using a population-based, cross-sectional mailed survey. The literature suggests that physical and mental HRQoL is worse for individuals with neck pain compared to those without neck pain. However, the strength of the association varies across studies. Discrepancies in study results may be attributed to the use of different definitions and measures of neck pain and differences in the selection of covariates used as control variables in the analyses. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey was mailed to 2,184 randomly selected Saskatchewan adults of whom 1,131 returned the questionnaire. Neck pain was measured with the Chronic Pain Questionnaire and categorized into four increasing grades of severity. We measured HRQoL with the SF-36 Health Survey and computed the physical and mental component summary scores. We built separate multiple linear regression models to examine the association between grades of neck pain and physical and mental summary scores while controlling for sociodemographic, general health and comorbidity covariates. Our crude analysis suggests that a gradient exists between the severity of neck pain and HRQoL. Compared to individuals without neck pain, those with Grades III-IV neck pain have significantly lower physical (mean difference = -13.9/100; 95% CI = -16.4, -11.3) and mental (mean difference = -10.8/100; 95% CI = -13.6, -8.1) HRQoL. Controlling for covariates greatly reduced the strength of association between neck pain and physical HRQoL and accounted for the observed association between neck pain and mental HRQoL. In the comorbidity model, the strength of association between Grades III-IV neck pain and PCS decreased by more than 50% (mean difference = -4.5/100; 95% CI = -6.9, -2.0). In the final PCS model, Grades III-IV neck pain coefficients changed only slightly from the comorbidity model (mean difference = -4.4/100; 95% CI = -6.9, -1.9). This suggests that comorbid conditions account for most of the association between neck pain and PCS score. It was concluded that prevalent neck pain is weakly associated with physical HRQoL, and that it is not associated with mental HRQoL. Our cross-sectional analysis suggests that most of the observed association between prevalent neck pain and HRQoL is attributable to comorbidities.
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