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Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;46(8):753-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Tanya Jukkala
Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen
Author Affiliation
Baltic and East European Graduate School, Södertörn University, 141 89, Huddinge, Sweden. tanya.jukkala@sh.se
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;46(8):753-65
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude
Demography
Ethics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Moscow - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Religion
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicide - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Attitudes concerning the acceptability of suicide have been emphasized as being important for understanding why levels of suicide mortality vary in different societies across the world. While Russian suicide mortality levels are among the highest in the world, not much is known about attitudes to suicide in Russia. This study aims to obtain a greater understanding about the levels and correlates of suicide acceptance in Russia.
Data from a survey of 1,190 Muscovites were analysed using logistic regression techniques. Suicide acceptance was examined among respondents in relation to social, economic and demographic factors as well as in relation to attitudes towards other moral questions.
The majority of interviewees (80%) expressed condemnatory attitudes towards suicide, although men were slightly less condemning. The young, the higher educated, and the non-religious were more accepting of suicide (OR > 2). However, the two first-mentioned effects disappeared when controlling for tolerance, while a positive effect of lower education on suicide acceptance appeared. When controlling for other independent variables, no significant effects were found on suicide attitudes by gender, one's current family situation, or by health-related or economic problems.
The most important determinants of the respondents' attitudes towards suicide were their tolerance regarding other moral questions and their religiosity. More tolerant views, in general, also seemed to explain the more accepting views towards suicide among the young and the higher educated. Differences in suicide attitudes between the sexes seemed to be dependent on differences in other factors rather than on gender per se. Suicide attitudes also seemed to be more affected by one's earlier experiences in terms of upbringing and socialization than by events and processes later in life.
PubMed ID
21110001 View in PubMed
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Access and interest: two important issues in considering the feasibility of web-assisted tobacco interventions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154400
Source
J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(5):e37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
John A Cunningham
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada. John_Cunningham@camh.net
Source
J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(5):e37
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude to Health
Feasibility Studies
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Health Surveys
Humans
Internet
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Predictive value of tests
Regression Analysis
Smoking - adverse effects
Smoking Cessation - methods
Telephone
Therapy, Computer-Assisted - methods
User-Computer Interface
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous research has found that current smokers are less likely to have access to the Internet than nonsmokers. As access to the Internet continues to expand, does this finding remain true? Also, how many smokers are interested in Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATIs)? These questions are important to determine the potential role that WATIs might play in promoting tobacco cessation.
The aims of the study were to determine whether smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have access to the Internet and to establish the level of interest in WATIs among a representative sample of smokers.
A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 8467 adult respondents, 18 years and older, in Ontario, Canada from September 2006 to August 2007. All respondents were asked their smoking status and whether they used the Internet (at home or work in the past 12 months; where; how often in the past 12 months). To assess the level of interest in WATIs, current daily smokers were asked whether they would be interested in a confidential program that they could access on the Internet, free of charge, that would allow them to check their smoking and compare it to other Canadians.
Smokers were marginally less likely to have used the Internet than nonsmokers (74% vs 81% in the last year), and, of those who had access to the Internet, smokers used the Internet less often than nonsmokers. Overall, 40% of smokers said they would be interested in a WATI. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was unrelated to level of interest in the WATI, but time to first cigarette after waking was. Smokers who used the Internet were more interested in the WATI than smokers who did not use the Internet (46% vs 20%).
While the difference in level of Internet use between smokers and nonsmokers was greatly reduced compared to 2002 and 2004 data, smokers still remain marginally less likely to use the Internet than nonsmokers. Overall, there was a substantial level of interest in the WATI among smokers, in particular among smokers who currently use the Internet. These results indicate that WATIs have a substantial potential audience among smokers, and, given the growing body of evidence regarding their efficacy, there is growing support that WATIs have a significant role to play in promoting tobacco cessation.
Notes
Cites: Br J Addict. 1989 Jul;84(7):791-92758152
Cites: J Med Internet Res. 2005;7(1):e215829474
Cites: Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Apr;7(2):207-1616036277
Cites: J Health Commun. 2005;10 Suppl 1:105-1816377603
Cites: J Med Internet Res. 2006;8(3):e1717032633
Cites: Tob Control. 2006 Feb;15(1):7-1216436397
Cites: Addict Behav. 2006 Feb;31(2):264-7715950392
Cites: Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006 Jan;25(1):79-8416492580
Cites: Med Inform Internet Med. 2006 Mar;31(1):53-816754367
Cites: Int J Med Inform. 2006 Jan;75(1):110-616125450
PubMed ID
18984558 View in PubMed
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Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113392
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Rania A Wasfi
Nancy A Ross
Ahmed M El-Geneidy
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A2K6. rania.wasfi@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.
PubMed ID
23732403 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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Adaptive defense use and resting blood pressure in a population-based sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182601
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2003 Dec;55(6):531-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Michael Wm MacGregor
Karina W Davidson
Cheryl Barksdale
Sheila Black
David MacLean
Author Affiliation
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2003 Dec;55(6):531-41
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Blood pressure
Defense Mechanisms
Female
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - psychology
Internal-External Control
Male
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Personality Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Q-Sort - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
There is an accumulating body of research related to the psychosomatic study of blood pressure. One variable that has received attention is defense use. We examined the relation between defense use and blood pressure in men and women of different ages.
A random sample of 667 participants was selected from a population-based study. Resting blood pressure was obtained, and each participant was rated for defense use by a trained observer using Defense-Q. An Adaptive Defense Profile (ADP) score was calculated for each participant, and this score was related to blood pressure.
Regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the ADP score for both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Those persons with higher ADP scores had lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure. As well, a significant Age x Sex x ADP score interaction was found for diastolic blood pressure. Older women with a less ADP score had higher diastolic blood pressure.
These findings suggest the continued investigation of defense use and blood pressure.
PubMed ID
14642984 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98176
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 May;53(5):850-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
D. Iggman
J. Arnlöv
B. Vessby
T. Cederholm
P. Sjögren
U. Risérus
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 May;53(5):850-7
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Aged
Chromatography, Gas
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology
Dietary Fats - adverse effects
Docosahexaenoic Acids - analysis
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - analysis
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - analysis
Glucose Clamp Technique
Health Surveys
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Palmitic Acid - analysis
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p
Notes
RefSource: Diabetologia. 2010 May;53(5):799-801
PubMed ID
20127308 View in PubMed
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Adolescents alcohol-use and economic conditions: a multilevel analysis of data from a period with big economic changes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146664
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Mikael Svensson
Curt Hagquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Swedish Business School, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. mikael.svensson@oru.se
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2010 Dec;11(6):533-41
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - economics - epidemiology
Alcoholism - economics - epidemiology
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - economics
Sweden
Time Factors
Unemployment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper examines how the unemployment rate is related to adolescent alcohol use and experience of binge drinking during a time period characterized by big societal changes. The paper uses repeated cross-sectional adolescent survey data from a Swedish region, collected in 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2002 and 2005, and merges this with data on local unemployment rates for the same time periods. Individual level frequency of alcohol use as well as experience of binge drinking is connected to local level unemployment rate to estimate the relationship using multilevel modeling. The model includes municipality effects controlling for time-invariant differences between municipalities as well as year fixed effects controlling for municipality-invariant changes over time in alcohol use. The results show that the unemployment rate is negatively associated with adolescents' alcohol use and the experience of binge drinking. When the unemployment rate increases, more adolescents do not drink at all. Regular drinking (twice per month or more) is, on the other hand, unrelated to the unemployment rate. Examining gender-differences in the relationship, it is shown that the results are driven by behavior in girls, whereas drinking among boys does not show any significant relationship with changes in the unemployment rate.
PubMed ID
20012126 View in PubMed
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Age at first alcohol use: a risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198774
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):745-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
D J DeWit
E M Adlaf
D R Offord
A C Ogborne
Author Affiliation
Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario, Canada. ddewitt@julian.uwo.ca
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):745-50
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcohol-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Preventive Health Services
Proportional Hazards Models
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Survival Analysis
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the natural course of DSM-III-R alcohol disorders as a function of age at first alcohol use and to investigate the influence of early use as a risk factor for progression to the development of alcohol disorders, exclusive of the effect of confounding influences.
Data were obtained from a community sample (N=5,856) of lifetime drinkers participating in the 1990-1991 Mental Health Supplement of the Ontario Health Survey.
Survival analyses revealed a rapid progression to alcohol-related harm among those who reported having their first drink at ages 11-14. After 10 years, 13.5% of the subjects who began to drink at ages 11 and 12 met the criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, and 15.9% had a diagnosis of dependence. Rates for subjects who began to drink at ages 13 and 14 were 13.7% and 9.0%, respectively. In contrast, rates for those who started drinking at ages 19 and older were 2.0% and 1.0%. Unexpectedly, a delay in progression to harm was observed for the youngest drinkers (ages 10 and under). Hazard regression analyses revealed a nonlinear effect of age at first alcohol use, marked by an elevated risk of developing disorders among subjects first using alcohol at ages 11-14.
First use of alcohol at ages 11-14 greatly heightens the risk of progression to the development of alcohol disorders and therefore is a reasonable target for intervention strategies that seek to delay first use as a means of averting problems later in life.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Sep;158(9):153011532753
PubMed ID
10784467 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and blood pressure: analysis of data from the Canada Health Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature239402
Source
Prev Med. 1985 Jan;14(1):1-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1985
Author
R A Coates
P N Corey
M J Ashley
C A Steele
Source
Prev Med. 1985 Jan;14(1):1-14
Date
Jan-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking
Blood pressure
Body Weight
Canada
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Hypertension - etiology - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Physical Exertion
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Recent epidemiologic studies report a significant association between alcohol consumption and elevations in both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a multivariate analysis of physical examination and other data on 721 men and 697 women aged 20 or more collected during the Canada Health Survey in 1978-1979. SBP and DBP were considered as separate dependent variables in multiple regression models with the following independent variables: age, alcohol consumption (measured as a 7-day recall history and as an average frequency of consumption), serum cholesterol, plasma glucose, physical activity, Quetelet index, parental history of hypertension, cigarette consumption, income, education, and exogenous hormonal use in women. In both weighted and unweighted multiple regression analyses, we could not demonstrate for either sex, a significant association between alcohol consumption (as recorded and following quadratic and logarithmic transformations) and either SBP or DBP. For both sexes, only age and Quetelet index were highly significantly (P less than 0.0001) and consistently associated with both SBP and DBP. No other independent variables were consistently associated, for either sex, with SBP and DBP. Further, the dose-response patterns noted by other investigators suggesting either a positive and linear relationship or a curvilinear relationship were not found in either our univariate or multivariate analyses. Rather, the alcohol-blood pressure curves showed no consistent patterns of any kind in either sex. These findings do not support recent claims that alcohol consumption is a determinant of elevations in either SBP or DBP.
PubMed ID
4034510 View in PubMed
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Anxiety and mood disorders and cannabis use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144662
Source
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010 Mar;36(2):118-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Joyce T W Cheung
Robert E Mann
Anca Ialomiteanu
Gina Stoduto
Vincy Chan
Kari Ala-Leppilampi
Jürgen Rehm
Author Affiliation
Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010 Mar;36(2):118-22
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Cannabis use has been linked to anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) in clinical cases, but little research on this relationship has been reported at the epidemiological level.
We examined the relationship between self-reported frequency of cannabis use and risk for AMD in the general Ontario adult population.
Data were based on the CAMH Monitor survey of Ontario adults from 2001 to 2006 (n = 14,531). AMD was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). Frequency of cannabis use within the past year was grouped into five categories: No use (abstainer), less than once a month but at least once a year, less than once a week but at least once a month, less than daily but at least once a week, almost every day to more than once a day. Logistic regression analysis of AMD and cannabis use was implemented while controlling for demographics and alcohol problems.
AMD was most common among heavy cannabis users (used almost every day or more) (18.1%) and lowest for abstainers (8.7%). Compared to abstainers, the risk of AMD was significantly greater for infrequent cannabis users (OR = 1.43) and heavy cannabis users (OR = 2.04) but not for those in between.
These data provide epidemiological evidence for a link between both light and heavy cannabis use and AMD.
Recognizing the comorbidity of heavy cannabis use and AMD should facilitate improved treatment efforts. Our results also suggest the possibility that, for some individuals, AMD may occur at relatively low levels of cannabis use.
PubMed ID
20337509 View in PubMed
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180 records – page 1 of 18.