BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
The aim of this study was to describe the ability for self-care among home dwelling elderly in the community in a health district in western Sweden. Two self-report instruments plus a number of self-care related questions were distributed by mail to an age stratified random sample and finally completed by a total of 125 subjects. Bivariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses. The results showed that self-care ability and self-care agency decreased for respondents 75+ years of age. Self-care ability was predicted by three productive means for self-care and four risk factors.
The purpose of this study was to test the ability of Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) to distinguish between fearful (n = 145) and regularly attending (n = 156) Norwegian dental patients. The reliability of both instruments was high (Cronbach's alpha indices > 0.95). With DAS, 90% of the fearful patients and 85% of the reference patients were correctly assigned to their appropriate group. Thus it may be concluded that, when used on a Norwegian population, DAS is a valid instrument for distinguishing fearful patients from those regularly attending dental treatment. The corresponding figures for STAI-S were 80% for the fearful patients and 79% for the reference patients. Although not developed specifically for this purpose, this instrument may therefore still validly be used to distinguish between the groups. The correlation between the instruments was 0.76, indicating that to some extent they measure the same phenomenon.
American Indian and Alaska Native Programs, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Nighthorse Campbell Native Health Building, P.O. Box 6508, Mailstop F800, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: Anthropologists with an interest in American Indian alcohol use have long held that how native people drink has been conditioned by aspects of the social organization of their societies prior to the disruptive influences of European colonialism. Our goal in this article was to explicitly test the importance of these factors in four contemporary American Indian cultural groups. METHOD: Using data on adolescent alcohol use drawn from the first full wave of the longitudinal Voices of Indian Teens Project (N = 1,651, 51% female), we tested whether patterns of quantity-frequency of alcohol use and the negative consequences of alcohol use predicted by social organzational variables were found among contemporary adolescents and, subsequently, whether these differences persisted when other, more proximal, variables were included. RESULTS: Cultural differences appeared to account for a small percentage of the variance in both quantity-frequency of alcohol use and negative consequences in the initial steps of our analyses, but the pattern in these data was not consistent with the predictions of existing theories regarding aboriginal social organization. Moreover, these cultural differences were no longer significant in the final step of our analyses, suggesting that the cultural differences that did exist were better explained by other factors, at least among these adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Although these analyses did not indicate that culture was irrelevant in understanding adolescent alcohol use in American Indian communities, classic formulations of these effects were of limited utility in understanding the experiences of contemporary American Indian adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial factors influencing the intention to incorporate physical activity into daily routine. The subjects were 353 residents from New Brunswick aged 15 to 80 years. The intention to be active was explained by current physical activity habit (beta = 0.563, p
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. METHODS: In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. RESULTS: The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. CONCLUSIONS: Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.
The aim of the present study was to explore contextual and individual factors associated with acute stress reactions in three Norwegian submarine crews exposed to different significant peacetime maneuver accidents. Approximately 2 to 3 weeks after the accidents, crew members completed the Coping Style Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, and the Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale. Although exposed subjects (N = 47) revealed more posttraumatic stress symptoms than nonexposed crew members on shore leave (N = 7), they showed less acute stress reactions than survivors from a surface ship accident in the Norwegian Navy. Inspection of individual cases revealed that 4% of the exposed submariners showed high loads of acute stress symptoms. Unit cohesion and habitual coping styles emerged as resilience factors, whereas previous exposure to critical incidents and personal experience of not coping in the accident situation emerged as vulnerability factors, explaining 32% of the acute stress reactions reported by submarine crew members.
Prostate cancer challenges not only the men with the disease, but also their partners. Existing studies have focused on the relationship between type of treatment and sexual and urinary function in men, with recent qualitative work suggesting that men and their spouses have differing responses to the illness. Factors predicting women's adaptation to prostate cancer have not been examined.
Using a model derived from family stress and adaptation theory, this study examined (1) the contribution of urinary and sexual symptoms, sense of coherence, marital resources and situational appraisal to wives' global adaptation (PAIS) and emotional adaptation (POMS), and (2) the role of situational appraisal as a mediator between the set of independent variables and PAIS and POMS.
In a prospective, correlational design, data were collected from 70 women following their partners' diagnosis and again 3 months later.
Using a path analysis approach, between 30% and 62.7% of the variance in global adjustment and mood disturbance was explained across model tests. Sense of coherence was a strong and consistent predictor. Appraisal acted as a mediator only at time 2, mediating the effect of symptom distress on global adaptation. Change in sense of coherence and change in family resources predicted global adaptation and emotional adaptation at time 2, and predicted the change between time 1 and 2 in those variables.
The findings suggest nursing interventions that mobilize and build wives' sense of the manageability, meaningfulness and comprehensibility of life events, and that foster cohesion and flexibility within the marital relationship. Interventions that mitigate the impact of urinary symptoms and the appraisal of threat in the illness event are also indicated. Additional model-testing studies based on family adaptation theory with patients and family members in other types of cancer would help build nursing knowledge for interventions in cancer.
Based on a psyschosocial developmental framework, this study used a mixed model design, including both quantitative and qualitative methods, to examine the relationship between adolescents' psychosocial maturity and their alcohol use. A sample of 1,198 10th-grade students (51% female) was surveyed and followed up two years later. Both concurrent and longitudinal findings indicated that the more psychosocially mature adolescents were less likely to drink heavily than those who showed less maturity. At age 15 this relationship was even stronger for those whose peers also drank. Further, at age 17, this linear relationship was more pronounced for those who drank less heavily at age 15. Of the three psychosocial competencies examined, the construct of personal meaning was more strongly related to adolescent alcohol use than were the constructs of interpersonal understanding and interpersonal skills. To illustrate this construct, two of the adolescents were interviewed, a girl and a boy, individually at the end of both school years. Thematic and developmental analyses of the interviews revealed individual variations in how the adolescents made meaning of their drinking; these encourage speculations that go beyond the general pattern found in the study.
We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P