Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and essential hypertension (EH) are two of several manifestations of the insulin resistance syndrome. Although subjects with NIDDM and subjects with EH share a common defect in carbohydrate metabolism, only diabetics are advised to avoid sugar. We tested the theory that an adverse effect of diuretics treatment in men with EH with respect to risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) would depend on the intake of dietary sugar using sugar in hot beverages as a marker. The cohort consisted of 2,899 men from the Copenhagen Male Study aged 53-74 years (mean 63) who were without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential confounders were: age, alcohol,smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, cotinine, NIDDM,and social class. A total of 340 men took antihypertensives; 211 took diuretics (95% thiazides and related agents), and 129 used other antihypertensives. During 6 years, 179 men (6.2%) had a first IHD event. Among the 340 men taking antihypertensives, the incidence rate was 11%. Diuretics use was associated with a high risk of IHD in hypertensive men with a relatively high intake of dietary sugar; the cumulative incidence rate was 22%; in diuretics treated men with a low intake of sugar, the rate was 7%. After controlling for potential confounders, relative risk (95% ci.) was 3.1(1.3-7.6), p = 001. Among the 129 men who took other forms of antihypertensive drugs, the IHD incidence rate was 8%, and independent of the intake of sugar. The results indicate that the risk of IHD in hypertensives using diuretics is associated with intake of dietary sugar, which may explain at least some of the discouraging effects of antihypertensive agents on the reduction of risk of IHD.
OBJECTIVE: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to that of the general population and to investigate the association with disease activity, focusing on different clinical remission criteria. METHODS: EQ-5D data from 3156 patients with RA from 11 Danish centers were compared with Danish EQ-5D population norms (n = 16,136). The Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index score (CDAI) were used as definitions of disease activity and clinical remission. The score difference (DeltaEQ-5D) was calculated in each patient as the difference from the age and sex-matched general population and adjusted for age, marital status, education, body mass index, smoking, exercise habits, disease duration, IgM-rheumatoid factor status, joint surgery, extraarticular features, treatment, and comorbidity in multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: 37% vs 22% fulfilled the DAS28 and CDAI remission criteria, respectively. The DeltaEQ-5D values for women/men in clinical remission were DAS28 0.05/0.06 vs CDAI 0.01/0.02; low disease activity: DAS28 0.12/0.13 vs CDAI 0.11/0.14; moderate disease activity: DAS28 0.18/0.20 vs CDAI 0.20/0.23; and high disease activity: DAS28 0.38/0.28 vs CDAI 0.33/0.26. Adjusting for confounders reduced the DeltaEQ-5D values between 0 and 0.04 units. CONCLUSION: Patients with RA had worse EQ-5D scores than the general population, and the difference was strongly associated with disease activity. The EQ-5D score for patients in clinical remission approached that of the general population, suggesting that strict treatment goals are critical in order to achieve near-normal HRQOL in patients with RA.
BACKGROUND: Greater education is associated with better physical health. This has been of great concern to public health officials. Most demonstrations show that education influences mean levels of health. Little is known about the influence of education on variance in health status, or about how this influence may impact the underlying genetic and environmental sources of health problems. This study explored these influences. METHODS: In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21 522 members of same-sex pairs in the Danish Twin Registry born between 1931 and 1982 reported physical health in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental variance in physical health differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. RESULTS: and Conclusions As expected, greater education was associated with better physical health. Greater education was also associated with smaller variance in health status. In both sexes, 2 standard deviations (SDs) above mean educational level, variance in physical health was only about half that among those 2 SDs below. This was because fewer highly educated people reported poor health. There was less total variance in health primarily because there was less genetic variance. Education apparently reduced expression of genetic susceptibilities to poor health. The patterns of genetic and environmental correlations suggested that this might take place because more educated people manage their environments to protect their health. If so, fostering the personal charactieristics associated with educational attainment could be important in reducing the education-health gradient.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine precise estimates of infant mortality rates and to describe overall trends in infant mortality in Greenland and Denmark from 1973 to 1997. METHODS: We analyzed data from population-based registries of all live-born infants in Greenland and Denmark to calculate infant mortality rates from 1973 to 1997. RESULTS: Between the periods of 1973-1977 and 1993-1997, neonatal mortality rates in Greenland declined from 20.9 per 1000 live-born infants to 15.7, and postneonatal mortality rates declined from 20.9 per 1000 to 5.9. Infant mortality rates were significantly higher in Greenland than in Denmark, and the excess mortality was uniformly distributed over all birthweight percentiles. In Greenland, the risk of infant death was significantly lower if the mother was born outside Greenland. CONCLUSIONS: Postneonatal mortality rates in Greenland have decreased significantly during the past 25 years, but little progress has been made in decreasing neonatal mortality rates. Disparities exist among children with different maternal origins.
Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8-11Â year-old children.
A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7Â days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent running test.
The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P?
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Apr;39(4):622-917414799
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Jul;43(7):1360-821131873