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Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292572
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193241
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Kyle Edmunds
Magnús Gíslason
Sigurður Sigurðsson
Vilmundur Guðnason
Tamara Harris
Ugo Carraro
Paolo Gargiulo
Author Affiliation
Institute for Biomedical and Neural Engineering, Reykjavík University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193241
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cluster analysis
Comorbidity
Disability Evaluation
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lower Extremity - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Male
Muscle, Skeletal - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Nonlinear Dynamics
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Sarcopenia - complications - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - physiopathology
Sex Factors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66-96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges' Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
29513690 View in PubMed
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Alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system during pregnancy: A longitudinal study of 855 healthy Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293428
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195041
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Miriam K Gustafsson
Pål R Romundstad
Signe Nilssen Stafne
Anne-Sofie Helvik
Astrid Kamilla Stunes
Siv Mørkved
Kjell Åsmund Salvesen
Per Medbøe Thorsby
Unni Syversen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195041
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Diabetes, Gestational - metabolism
Endocrine System
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Norway
Nutritional Status
Parathyroid Hormone - metabolism
Pregnancy - metabolism
Pregnancy Complications
Pregnancy Trimesters
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vitamin D - metabolism
Vitamin D deficiency
Abstract
To ensure optimal calcium accrual in the fetal skeleton, a substantial rise occurs in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), but is dependent on sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D). Large longitudinal studies addressing free 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D during pregnancy are scarce. We aimed to assess levels of and relationship between 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and free 25(OH)D during pregnancy; determinants of vitamin D status; and association between vitamin D indices or PTH and pregnancy outcomes (gestational diabetes mellitus and birthweight). Altogether 855 pregnant Norwegian Caucasian women from Trondheim and Stavanger (latitude 63°N and 58°N) were recruited; 94 were lost to follow-up. The study was originally a randomized controlled trial (2007-2009) with gestational diabetes as primary outcome. Data were collected in second and third trimester. In third trimester, 246 (34%) had vitamin D insufficiency and 52 (7%) deficiency (25(OH)D
Notes
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PubMed ID
29641551 View in PubMed
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Antibiotics to outpatients in Norway-Assessing effect of latitude and municipality population size using quantile regression in a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296700
Source
Pharm Stat. 2018 02; 17(1):4-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Pål Haugen
Gunnar S Simonsen
Raul Primicerio
Anne-Sofie Furberg
Lars Småbrekke
Author Affiliation
Recogni AS, Ålesund, Norway.
Source
Pharm Stat. 2018 02; 17(1):4-11
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Ambulatory Care - methods - statistics & numerical data - trends
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Cross-Sectional Studies
Databases, Factual - trends
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Outpatients - statistics & numerical data
Population Density
Regression Analysis
Abstract
High antibiotic consumption rates are associated to high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Geographical differences in dispensing rates of antibiotics are frequently analysed using statistical methods addressing the central tendency of the data. Yet, examining extreme quantiles may be of equal or greater interest if the problem relates to the extremes of consumption rates, as is the case for antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate how geographic location (latitude) and municipality population size affect antibiotic consumption in Norway. We analysed all outpatient antibiotic prescriptions (n > 14 000 000) in Norway between 2004 and 2010 using quantile regression. Data were stratified by year, and we aggregated individual data to municipality, county, or latitudinal range. We specified the quantile regression models using directed acyclic graphs and selected the model based on Akaike information criteria. Yearly outpatient antibiotic consumption in Norway varied up to 10-fold at municipality level. We found geographical variation to depend on the number of inhabitants in a municipality and on latitude. These variables interacted, so that consumption declined with increasing latitude when municipality population sizes were small, but the effect of latitude diminished as the number of inhabitants increased. Aggregation to different levels of spatial resolution did not significantly affect our results. In Norway, outpatient antibiotic dispensing rates decreases with latitude at a rate contingent on municipality population size. Quantile regression analysis provides a flexible and powerful tool to address problems related to high, or low, dispensing rates.
PubMed ID
28961357 View in PubMed
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Association between perceived stress, multimorbidity and primary care health services: a Danish population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294801
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 24; 8(2):e018323
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-24-2018
Author
Anders Prior
Mogens Vestergaard
Karen Kjær Larsen
Morten Fenger-Grøn
Author Affiliation
Research Unit for General Practice and Section for General Medical Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 24; 8(2):e018323
Date
02-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental Health Services - utilization
Middle Aged
Multimorbidity
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - utilization
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotherapy
Psychotropic Drugs - therapeutic use
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - therapy
Abstract
Mental stress is common in the general population. Mounting evidence suggests that mental stress is associated with multimorbidity, suboptimal care and increased mortality. Delivering healthcare in a biopsychosocial context is key for general practitioners (GPs), but it remains unclear how persons with high levels of perceived stress are managed in primary care. We aimed to describe the association between perceived stress and primary care services by focusing on mental health-related activities and markers of elective/acute care while accounting for mental-physical multimorbidity.
Population-based cohort study.
Primary healthcare in Denmark.
118?410 participants from the Danish National Health Survey 2010 followed for 1?year. Information on perceived stress and lifestyle was obtained from a survey questionnaire. Information on multimorbidity was obtained from health registers.
General daytime consultations, out-of-hours services, mental health-related services and chronic care services in primary care obtained from health registers.
Perceived stress levels were associated with primary care activity in a dose-response relation when adjusted for underlying conditions, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. In the highest stress quintile, 6.8% attended GP talk therapy (highest vs lowest quintile, adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR): 4.96, 95%?CI 4.20 to 5.86), 3.3% consulted a psychologist (IRR: 6.49, 95%?CI 4.90 to 8.58), 21.5% redeemed an antidepressant prescription (IRR: 4.62, 95%?CI 4.03 to 5.31), 23.8% attended annual chronic care consultations (IRR: 1.22, 95%?CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 26.1% used out-of-hours services (IRR: 1.47, 95%?CI 1.51 to 1.68). For those with multimorbidity, stress was associated with more out-of-hours services, but not with more chronic care services.
Persons with high stress levels generally had higher use of primary healthcare, 4-6 times higher use of mental health-related services (most often in the form of psychotropic drug prescriptions), but less timely use of chronic care services.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29478014 View in PubMed
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Association between tubal ligation and endometrial cancer risk: A Swedish population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297528
Source
Int J Cancer. 2018 07 01; 143(1):16-21
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-01-2018
Author
Henrik Falconer
Li Yin
Daniel Altman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2018 07 01; 143(1):16-21
Date
07-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Elective Surgical Procedures
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sterilization, Tubal - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Tubal ligation results in less advanced stages and lower risk of metastatic spread at diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) but the primary preventive effect of the procedure is unclear. In a Swedish nationwide population-based cohort study, we crosslinked registry data for tubal ligation, EC, and death for Swedish women between 1973 and 2010. All women were followed until EC, emigration, hysterectomy for non-cancerous reasons, death, or end of follow-up. Primary outcome was incidence of EC and secondary outcome overall survival. We calculated adjusted incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years and hazard ratios (HR) using Cox regression models. A total of 35,711 cases of EC were identified among 5,385,186 women. The IR of EC among exposed was 17.7 (95% CI 15.7-19.9) versus 29.0 (95% CI 28.7-29.3) among unexposed (per 100,000 women years). Exposed individuals had significantly reduced risk of EC (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65-0.83). The mortality rate among women with EC was 72% lower in exposed compared to unexposed (IR 1,441; 95% CI 1,089-1,907 and IR 5,136; 95% CI 5,065-5,209, respectively) which following adjustment corresponded to a HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.49-1.03). Tubal ligation was associated with lower risk of EC as well as mortality rates in women with EC. Elective tubal ligation may be adopted in future cancer preventive strategies but must be balanced against the irreversibility of the procedure, which preclude further unassisted reproduction.
PubMed ID
29388208 View in PubMed
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Associations of Del 301-303 alpha2B-adrenoceptor gene polymorphism with central hemodynamic parameters in the northern Russian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297756
Source
Physiol Genomics. 2018 02 01; 50(2):100-101
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-01-2018
Author
Vladimir N Melnikov
Victor I Baranov
Irina Yu Suvorova
Sergey G Krivoschekov
Author Affiliation
Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine , Novosibirsk , Russia.
Source
Physiol Genomics. 2018 02 01; 50(2):100-101
Date
02-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Genotype
Hemodynamics - genetics - physiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2 - genetics
Regression Analysis
Russia
Abstract
The ADRA2B gene 301-303 I/D polymorphism is associated with various cardiovascular phenotypes. However, an association of genotypes with the timing structure of cardiac cycle remains unclear. The central hemodynamic parameters were assessed by pulse wave analysis in 63 residents of the Kola Peninsula (68 N) aged 27-65 yr. The genotypes were determined by PCR. The paired comparisons revealed that II genotype carriers had higher values of augmentation index ( P = 0.014), ejection duration ( P = 0.045), and lower SEVR ( P = 0.035) than DD homozygotes. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, heart rate, and blood pressure confirmed these results. Further sex stratified analysis showed that the associations existed only in men ( n = 33) whereas in women ( n = 30) the differences were suggestive ( P
PubMed ID
29212846 View in PubMed
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Attachment style among outpatients with substance use disorders in psychological treatment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298631
Source
Psychol Psychother. 2018 12; 91(4):490-508
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Ylva Gidhagen
Rolf Holmqvist
Björn Philips
Author Affiliation
Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
Source
Psychol Psychother. 2018 12; 91(4):490-508
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Object Attachment
Outpatients - psychology
Psychotherapy - methods
Regression Analysis
Stress, Psychological
Substance-Related Disorders - psychology - therapy
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment.
In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships - Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation.
An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end.
This study shows significant relations between patients' attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style.
We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients' attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient's attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient's needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships.
PubMed ID
29399945 View in PubMed
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Benzodiazepine prescribing for children, adolescents, and young adults from 2006 through 2013: A total population register-linkage study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299334
Source
PLoS Med. 2018 08; 15(8):e1002635
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Anna Sidorchuk
Kayoko Isomura
Yasmina Molero
Clara Hellner
Paul Lichtenstein
Zheng Chang
Johan Franck
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
David Mataix-Cols
Author Affiliation
Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
PLoS Med. 2018 08; 15(8):e1002635
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Benzodiazepines - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Odds Ratio
Pharmacoepidemiology
Practice Patterns, Physicians' - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Pharmacoepidemiological studies have long raised concerns on widespread use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs (BZDs), in particular long-term use, among adults and the elderly. In contrast, evidence pertaining to the rates of BZD use at younger ages is still scarce, and the factors that influence BZD utilisation and shape the different prescribing patterns in youths remain largely unexplored. We examined the prevalence rates, relative changes in rates over time, and prescribing patterns for BZD dispensation in young people aged 0-24 years in Sweden during the period January 1, 2006-December 31, 2013, and explored demographic, clinical, pharmacological, and prescriber-related attributes of BZD prescribing in this group.
Through the linkage of 3 nationwide Swedish health and administrative registers, we collected data on 17,500 children (0-11 years), 15,039 adolescents (12-17 years), and 85,200 young adults (18-24 years) with at least 1 dispensed prescription for a BZD during 2006-2013, out of 3,726,818 Swedish inhabitants aged 0-24 years. Age-specific annual prevalence rates of BZD dispensations were adjusted for population growth, and relative changes in rates were calculated between 2006 and 2013. We analysed how BZD dispensation varied by sex, psychiatric morbidity and epilepsy, concurrent dispensation of psychotropic medication, type of dispensed BZD, and type of healthcare provider prescribing the BZD. Prescribing patterns were established in relation to duration (3 months, >3 to =6 months, or >6 months), dosage ( 6 months). The study limitations included lack of information on actual consumption of the dispensed BZDs and unavailability of data on the indications for BZD prescriptions.
The overall increase in prevalence rates of BZD dispensations during the study period and the unexpectedly high proportion of individuals who were prescribed a BZD on a long-term basis at a young age indicate a lack of congruence with international and national guidelines. These findings highlight the need for close monitoring of prescribing practices, particularly in non-psychiatric settings, in order to build an evidence base for safe and efficient BZD treatment in young persons.
PubMed ID
30086134 View in PubMed
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Calcium in drinking water: effect on iron stores in Danish blood donors-results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296888
Source
Transfusion. 2018 06; 58(6):1468-1473
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Andreas S Rigas
Benedikte H Ejsing
Erik Sørensen
Ole B Pedersen
Henrik Hjalgrim
Christian Erikstrup
Henrik Ullum
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Immunology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Transfusion. 2018 06; 58(6):1468-1473
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Blood Donors
Calcium - analysis - pharmacology
Denmark
Drinking Water - chemistry
Humans
Iron - blood - deficiency
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Abstract
Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors.
We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels 
PubMed ID
29577328 View in PubMed
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Child mortality in England compared with Sweden: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296015
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-19-2018
Author
Ania Zylbersztejn
Ruth Gilbert
Anders Hjern
Linda Wijlaars
Pia Hardelid
Author Affiliation
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, UK; Population, Policy and Practice Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Electronic address: ania.zylbersztejn@ucl.ac.uk.
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Date
05-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child Mortality
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
England - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference.
We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records. We analysed mortality as the outcome, based on deaths from any cause at age 2-27 days, 28-364 days, and 1-4 years. We fitted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for England compared with Sweden in all three age groups. The models were adjusted for birth characteristics (gestational age, birthweight, sex, and congenital anomalies), and for socioeconomic factors (maternal age and socioeconomic status).
The English cohort comprised 3?932?886 births and 11?392 deaths and the Swedish cohort comprised 1?013?360 births and 1927 deaths. The unadjusted HRs for England compared with Sweden were 1·66 (95% CI 1·53-1·81) at 2-27 days, 1·59 (1·47-1·71) at 28-364 days, and 1·27 (1·15-1·40) at 1-4 years. At 2-27 days, 77% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 3% by socioeconomic factors. At 28-364 days, 68% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 11% by socioeconomic factors. At 1-4 years, the adjusted HR did not indicate a significant difference between countries.
Excess child mortality in England compared with Sweden was largely explained by the unfavourable distribution of birth characteristics in England. Socioeconomic factors contributed to these differences through associations with adverse birth characteristics and increased mortality after 1 month of age. Policies to reduce child mortality in England could have most impact by reducing adverse birth characteristics through improving the health of women before and during pregnancy and reducing socioeconomic disadvantage.
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (through the Medical Research Council, Arthritis Research UK, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Chief Scientist Office, Economic and Social Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Social Care and Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust).
Notes
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CommentIn: Lancet. 2018 May 19;391(10134):1968-1969 PMID 29731174
PubMed ID
29731173 View in PubMed
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