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Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289820
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2017
Author
Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt
Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen
Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen
Axel Skytthe
Jacob V B Hjelmborg
Sören Möller
Kaare Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, The Danish Twin Registry, Unit of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address: lahrenfeldt@health.sdu.dk.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Date
02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Testosterone - blood
Twins, Dizygotic - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life.
We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression.
Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls.
Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28024904 View in PubMed
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Food and nutrient intakes in young adults born preterm.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300092
Source
Pediatr Res. 2018 03; 83(3):589-596
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2018
Author
Hanna-Maria Matinolli
Satu Männistö
Marika Sipola-Leppänen
Marjaana Tikanmäki
Kati Heinonen
Johan G Eriksson
Dieter Wolke
Aulikki Lano
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Marja Vääräsmäki
Katri Räikkönen
Eero Kajantie
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Res. 2018 03; 83(3):589-596
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Diet
Energy intake
Feeding Behavior
Female
Finland
Food
Food Preferences
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Male
Nutrients
Patient compliance
Premature Birth
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
BackgroundAdults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Studies have suggested that at least those born smallest eat less healthily. We examined the association between early (
PubMed ID
29166380 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prediction of drug abuse recurrence: a Swedish National Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299214
Source
Psychol Med. 2018 06; 48(8):1367-1374
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
K S Kendler
H Ohlsson
K Sundquist
J Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
Source
Psychol Med. 2018 06; 48(8):1367-1374
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Latent Class Analysis
Male
Multivariate Analysis
ROC Curve
Recurrence
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Relapse from drug abuse (DA) is common, but has rarely been studied in general population samples using a wide range of objective predictors.
Using nationwide registries, we ascertained 44 523 subjects first registered for DA between the ages of 15 and 40 in 1998 to 2004 and followed for 8 years. We predicted relapse in subjects defined as a second DA registration. We also predicted DA relapse in relative pairs concordant for DA but discordant for relapse.
In multivariate regression analyses, the strongest predictors for relapse were prior criminal behavior, male sex, being on social welfare, low school achievement, prior alcoholism, and a high-risk father. A risk index trained from these analyses on random split-halves demonstrated a risk ratio of 1.11 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.10-1.11] per decile and an ROC value of 0.70 (0.69-0.71). Co-relative analyses indicated that a modest proportion of this association was causal, with the remainder arising from familial confounders. A developmental structural equation model revealed a complex interviewing of risk pathways to DA with three key mediational hubs: low educational attainment, early age at first registration, and being on social welfare.
In a general population sample, using objective registry information, DA relapse is substantially predictable. However, the identified risk factors may not be valid targets for interventions because many index familial risk and may not impact causally on probability of relapse. Risk for DA relapse may reflect an inter-weaving, over developmental time, of genetic-temperamental vulnerability, indices of externalizing behaviors and social factors reflecting deprivation.
PubMed ID
28994361 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and associations with child language at five years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290353
Source
Environ Int. 2018 01; 110:71-79
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2018
Author
Kristine Vejrup
Ragnhild Eek Brandlistuen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Jan Alexander
Thomas Lundh
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Per Magnus
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Postbox 4404, Nydalen, NO 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: Kristine.Vejrup@fhi.no.
Source
Environ Int. 2018 01; 110:71-79
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Child Language
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Language Development Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Mercury - analysis - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Seafood - analysis
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxin and evidence suggests that also low level exposure may affect prenatal neurodevelopment. Uncertainty exists as to whether the maternal MeHg burden in Norway might affect child neurodevelopment.
To evaluate the association between prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and child language and communication skills at age five.
The study sample comprised 38,581 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal mercury blood concentration in gestational week 17 was analysed in a sub-sample of 2239 women. Prenatal mercury exposure from maternal diet was calculated from a validated FFQ answered in mid-pregnancy. Mothers reported children's language and communications skills at age five by a questionnaire including questions from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), the Speech and Language Assessment Scale (SLAS) and the Twenty Statements about Language-Related Difficulties (language 20). We performed linear regression analyses adjusting for maternal characteristics, nutritional status and socioeconomic factors.
Median maternal blood mercury concentration was 1.03µg/L, dietary mercury exposure was 0.15µg/kgbw/wk, and seafood intake was 217g/wk. Blood mercury concentrations were not associated with any language and communication scales. Increased dietary mercury exposure was significantly associated with improved SLAS scores when mothers had a seafood intake below 400g/wk in the adjusted analysis. Sibling matched analysis showed a small significant adverse association between those above the 90th percentile dietary mercury exposure and the SLAS scores. Maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was positively associated with the language and communication scales.
Low levels of prenatal mercury exposure were positively associated with language and communication skills at five years. However, the matched sibling analyses suggested an adverse association between mercury and child language skills in the highest exposure group. This indicates that prenatal low level mercury exposure still needs our attention.
PubMed ID
29089166 View in PubMed
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Sharing-based social capital associated with harvest production and wealth in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292459
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193759
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Elspeth Ready
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States of America.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193759
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Age Factors
Arctic regions - ethnology
Canada - ethnology
Community Networks
Crops, Agricultural
Female
Food Supply - methods
Humans
Inuits
Male
Models, Theoretical
Regression Analysis
Social capital
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Social institutions that facilitate sharing and redistribution may help mitigate the impact of resource shocks. In the North American Arctic, traditional food sharing may direct food to those who need it and provide a form of natural insurance against temporal variability in hunting returns within households. Here, network properties that facilitate resource flow (network size, quality, and density) are examined in a country food sharing network comprising 109 Inuit households from a village in Nunavik (Canada), using regressions to investigate the relationships between these network measures and household socioeconomic attributes. The results show that although single women and elders have larger networks, the sharing network is not structured to prioritize sharing towards households with low food availability. Rather, much food sharing appears to be driven by reciprocity between high-harvest households, meaning that poor, low-harvest households tend to have less sharing-based social capital than more affluent, high-harvest households. This suggests that poor, low-harvest households may be more vulnerable to disruptions in the availability of country food.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29529040 View in PubMed
Less detail