Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study.
A case was defined as isolation of S. pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes or H. influenzae from cerebrospinal fluid and reported to national, population-based laboratory surveillance system during 1995-2014. We evaluated changes in incidence rates (Poisson or negative binomial regression), case fatality proportions (?2) and age distribution of cases (Wilcoxon rank-sum).
During 1995-2014, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis accounted for 78% of the total 1361 reported bacterial meningitis cases. H. influenzae accounted for 4% of cases (92% of isolates were non-type b). During the study period, the overall rate of bacterial meningitis per 1?00?000 person-years decreased from 1.88 cases in 1995 to 0.70 cases in 2014 (4% annual decline (95% CI 3% to 5%). This was primarily due to a 9% annual reduction in rates of N. meningitidis (95%?CI 7% to 10%) and 2% decrease in S. pneumoniae (95%?CI 1% to 4%). The median age of cases increased from 31 years in 1995-2004 to 43 years in 2005-2014 (p=0.0004). Overall case fatality proportion (10%) did not change from 2004 to 2009 to 2010-2014.
Substantial decreases in bacterial meningitis were associated with infant conjugate vaccination against pneumococcal meningitis and secular trend in meningococcal meningitis in the absence of vaccination programme. Ongoing epidemiological surveillance is needed to identify trends, evaluate serotype distribution, assess vaccine impact and develop future vaccination strategies.
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Cites: Vaccine. 2013 Aug 28;31 Suppl 4:D7-12 PMID 23973349
Women living with HIV (WLWH) have elevated risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers.
To assess prevalence, distribution and concordance of cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection, and predictors of oral and anal HPV in WLWH in Denmark.
WLWH followed in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) were enrolled and examined for cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection. Logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of anal and oral HPV.
A total of 214 of 334 WLWH had sufficient DNA for analysis at all three anatomical sites and were included in analyses. Cervical, oral, and anal high-risk (hr) HPV prevalence were 28.0%, 3.7% and 39.3%. Most frequent i) cervical, ii) oral and iii) anal hrHPV genotypes were i) hrHPV58 (8.4%), 52 (5.1%), 16 (5.1%) and 51 (5.1%); ii) 52 (1.4%) and iii) 51 (9.3%), 58 (8.9%), 16 (7.0%) and 18 (7.0%). Among present cervical, oral, and anal hrHPV genotypes, 6.7%, 12.5% and 17.9% were targeted by the 2-or 4-valent HPV vaccines, whereas 50.0%, 50.0% and 42.9% of hrHPV genotypes were covered by the 9-valent HPV vaccine. Anal HPV infection was predicted by cervical HPV infection (adjusted OR 4.47 (95%CI 2.25-8.89)).
Cervical and anal HPV infection were highly prevalent in WLWH. Non-16/18 hrHPV genotypes were predominant at all anatomical sites. Almost half of all hrHPV infections at the three anatomical sites could have been prevented by childhood/adolescent vaccination with the 9-valent HPV vaccine.
Demand for ambulances is growing. Nevertheless, knowledge is limited regarding diagnoses and outcomes in patients receiving emergency ambulances. This study aims to examine time trends in diagnoses and mortality among patients transported with emergency ambulance to hospital.
Population-based cohort study with linkage of Danish national registries.
The North Denmark Region in 2007-2014.
Cohort of 148 757 patients transported to hospital by ambulance after calling emergency services.
The number of emergency ambulance service patients, distribution of their age, sex, hospital diagnoses, comorbidity, and 1-day and 30-day mortality were assessed by calendar year. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to estimate both age-and sex-adjusted relative risk of death and prevalence ratios for Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to allow comparison by year, with 2007 as reference year.
The annual number of emergency ambulance service patients increased from 24.3 in 2007 to 40.2 in 2014 per 1000 inhabitants. The proportions of women increased from 43.1% to 46.4%?and of patients aged 60+ years from 39.9% to 48.6%, respectively. The proportion of injuries gradually declined, non-specific diagnoses increased, especially the last year. Proportion of patients with high comorbidity (CCI=3) increased from 6.4% in 2007 to 9.4% in 2014, corresponding to an age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.39). The 1-day and 30?day mortality decreased from 2.40% to 1.21%?and from 5.01% to 4.36%, respectively, from 2007 to 2014, corresponding to age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risk of 0.43 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.50) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.79), respectively.
During the 8-year period, the incidence of emergency ambulance service patients, the proportion of women, elderly, and non-specific diagnoses increased. The level of comorbidity increased substantially, whereas the 1-day and 30-day mortality decreased.
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Surveys suggest that most people prefer to die at home. Trends in causes of mortality and age composition could limit the feasibility of home deaths.
To examine the effect of changes in decedents' age, gender and cause of death on the pattern of place of death using data on all deaths in Norway for the period 1987-2011.
Population-based observation study comparing raw, predicted, as well as standardised shares of place of death isolating the effect of demographic and epidemiological changes. The analysis was bolstered with joinpoint regression to detect shifts in trends in standardised shares.
All deaths (1,091,303) in Norway 1987-2011 by age, gender and cause of death. Place of death at home, hospital, nursing home and other.
Fewer people died in hospitals (34.1% vs 46.2%) or at home (14.2% vs 18.3%), and more in nursing homes (45.5% vs 29.5%) in 2011 than in 1987. Much of the trend can be explained by demographic and epidemiological changes. Ageing of the population and the epidemiological shift represented by the declining share of deaths from circulatory diseases (31.4% vs 48.4%) compared to the increase in deaths from neoplasms (26.9% vs 21.8%) and mental/behavioural diseases (4.4% vs 1.2%) are the strongest drivers in the shift in place of death. Joinpoint regression shows important differences between categories.
Demographic and epidemiological changes go a long way in explaining shifts in place of death. The analyses reveal substantial differences in trends between different decedent groups.