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Adolescent drinking-a touch of social class?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290269
Source
Addiction. 2017 May; 112(5):792-800
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Hilde Pape
Thor Norström
Ingeborg Rossow
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Addiction. 2017 May; 112(5):792-800
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parenting
Regression Analysis
Risk
Social Class
Surveys and Questionnaires
Underage Drinking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To estimate whether parental socio-economic status (SES) is associated with adolescent drinking, and the degree to which a possible association may be accounted for by various parental factors.
Cross-sectional Norwegian school survey from 2006 (response rate: 86%).
Students aged 13-14 years (n = 5797), 15-16 years (n = 6613) and 17-18 years (n = 5351), of whom 51% were girls.
Parents' education was our main SES indicator, and we distinguished between low (7%) and middle/high (93%) educational level. The outcomes comprised past-year drinking and intoxication. We also applied measures on general parenting, parents' alcohol-related permissiveness and parental intoxication. The main analyses were conducted using Poisson regression.
Parents' education had no statistically significant impact on alcohol use among the 17-18-year-olds, while 13-16-year-olds with low educated parents had an elevated relative risk (RR) of both drinking [RR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.29] and intoxication (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21-1.44). The RRs became statistically insignificant when including all the parental factors as covariates in the regression models. Among adolescents who had consumed alcohol, low parental education was related to more frequent drinking (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.11-1.38) and intoxication episodes (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.22-1.66). Again, the RRs became statistically insignificant when we accounted for all the parental factors. This pattern was replicated when we applied an alternative indicator for low parental SES.
Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.
PubMed ID
27943493 View in PubMed
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Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292572
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193241
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Kyle Edmunds
Magnús Gíslason
Sigurður Sigurðsson
Vilmundur Guðnason
Tamara Harris
Ugo Carraro
Paolo Gargiulo
Author Affiliation
Institute for Biomedical and Neural Engineering, Reykjavík University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193241
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cluster analysis
Comorbidity
Disability Evaluation
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lower Extremity - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Male
Muscle, Skeletal - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Nonlinear Dynamics
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Sarcopenia - complications - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - physiopathology
Sex Factors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66-96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges' Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
29513690 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system during pregnancy: A longitudinal study of 855 healthy Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293428
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195041
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Miriam K Gustafsson
Pål R Romundstad
Signe Nilssen Stafne
Anne-Sofie Helvik
Astrid Kamilla Stunes
Siv Mørkved
Kjell Åsmund Salvesen
Per Medbøe Thorsby
Unni Syversen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195041
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Diabetes, Gestational - metabolism
Endocrine System
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Norway
Nutritional Status
Parathyroid Hormone - metabolism
Pregnancy - metabolism
Pregnancy Complications
Pregnancy Trimesters
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vitamin D - metabolism
Vitamin D deficiency
Abstract
To ensure optimal calcium accrual in the fetal skeleton, a substantial rise occurs in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), but is dependent on sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D). Large longitudinal studies addressing free 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D during pregnancy are scarce. We aimed to assess levels of and relationship between 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and free 25(OH)D during pregnancy; determinants of vitamin D status; and association between vitamin D indices or PTH and pregnancy outcomes (gestational diabetes mellitus and birthweight). Altogether 855 pregnant Norwegian Caucasian women from Trondheim and Stavanger (latitude 63°N and 58°N) were recruited; 94 were lost to follow-up. The study was originally a randomized controlled trial (2007-2009) with gestational diabetes as primary outcome. Data were collected in second and third trimester. In third trimester, 246 (34%) had vitamin D insufficiency and 52 (7%) deficiency (25(OH)D
Notes
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PubMed ID
29641551 View in PubMed
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Antibiotics to outpatients in Norway-Assessing effect of latitude and municipality population size using quantile regression in a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296700
Source
Pharm Stat. 2018 02; 17(1):4-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Pål Haugen
Gunnar S Simonsen
Raul Primicerio
Anne-Sofie Furberg
Lars Småbrekke
Author Affiliation
Recogni AS, Ålesund, Norway.
Source
Pharm Stat. 2018 02; 17(1):4-11
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Ambulatory Care - methods - statistics & numerical data - trends
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Cross-Sectional Studies
Databases, Factual - trends
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Outpatients - statistics & numerical data
Population Density
Regression Analysis
Abstract
High antibiotic consumption rates are associated to high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Geographical differences in dispensing rates of antibiotics are frequently analysed using statistical methods addressing the central tendency of the data. Yet, examining extreme quantiles may be of equal or greater interest if the problem relates to the extremes of consumption rates, as is the case for antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate how geographic location (latitude) and municipality population size affect antibiotic consumption in Norway. We analysed all outpatient antibiotic prescriptions (n > 14 000 000) in Norway between 2004 and 2010 using quantile regression. Data were stratified by year, and we aggregated individual data to municipality, county, or latitudinal range. We specified the quantile regression models using directed acyclic graphs and selected the model based on Akaike information criteria. Yearly outpatient antibiotic consumption in Norway varied up to 10-fold at municipality level. We found geographical variation to depend on the number of inhabitants in a municipality and on latitude. These variables interacted, so that consumption declined with increasing latitude when municipality population sizes were small, but the effect of latitude diminished as the number of inhabitants increased. Aggregation to different levels of spatial resolution did not significantly affect our results. In Norway, outpatient antibiotic dispensing rates decreases with latitude at a rate contingent on municipality population size. Quantile regression analysis provides a flexible and powerful tool to address problems related to high, or low, dispensing rates.
PubMed ID
28961357 View in PubMed
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Are Changes in Alcohol Consumption Among Swedish Youth Really Occurring 'in Concert'? A New Perspective Using Quantile Regression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289636
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Zangin Zeebari
Andreas Lundin
Paul W Dickman
Mats Hallgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Female
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Psychological Theory
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Underage Drinking - trends
Abstract
Recent studies of youth alcohol consumption indicate a collective downward drinking trend at all levels of consumption, i.e. reductions occurring 'in concert'. We re-examine the collectivity of drinking theory by applying quantile regression methods to the analysis and interpretation of Swedish youth alcohol consumption.
Changes in youth alcohol consumption between 2000 and 2014 were assessed using a school-based survey conducted in Stockholm (n = 86,402). Participants were Swedish youth aged 15-18 years. The rate of change in consumption was examined using quantile regression, and compared to Ordinary Least Squares modelling. The hypothesis of parallelism or 'in concert' changes in consumption was assessed using the test of the equality of linear regression slopes corresponding to different quantiles of log consumption.
In both models, changes in consumption over time did not occur in parallel, contrary to the collectivity of drinking theory. Instead, a clear divergence in the rate of drinking was observed, with most adolescent quantiles reducing consumption, while heavy consuming remained stable.
Contrary to previous studies, our findings do not support a collectivity of drinking behaviour among Swedish youth. Quantile regression is a robust and appropriate method for analysing temporal changes in alcohol consumption data.
PubMed ID
28379324 View in PubMed
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Are Changes in Alcohol Consumption Among Swedish Youth Really Occurring 'in Concert'? A New Perspective Using Quantile Regression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289478
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Zangin Zeebari
Andreas Lundin
Paul W Dickman
Mats Hallgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Female
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Psychological Theory
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Underage Drinking - trends
Abstract
Recent studies of youth alcohol consumption indicate a collective downward drinking trend at all levels of consumption, i.e. reductions occurring 'in concert'. We re-examine the collectivity of drinking theory by applying quantile regression methods to the analysis and interpretation of Swedish youth alcohol consumption.
Changes in youth alcohol consumption between 2000 and 2014 were assessed using a school-based survey conducted in Stockholm (n = 86,402). Participants were Swedish youth aged 15-18 years. The rate of change in consumption was examined using quantile regression, and compared to Ordinary Least Squares modelling. The hypothesis of parallelism or 'in concert' changes in consumption was assessed using the test of the equality of linear regression slopes corresponding to different quantiles of log consumption.
In both models, changes in consumption over time did not occur in parallel, contrary to the collectivity of drinking theory. Instead, a clear divergence in the rate of drinking was observed, with most adolescent quantiles reducing consumption, while heavy consuming remained stable.
Contrary to previous studies, our findings do not support a collectivity of drinking behaviour among Swedish youth. Quantile regression is a robust and appropriate method for analysing temporal changes in alcohol consumption data.
PubMed ID
28379324 View in PubMed
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Aromatic hydrocarbons and risk of skin cancer by anatomical site in 25?000 male offshore petroleum workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291303
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2017 Aug; 60(8):679-688
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Jo Steinson Stenehjem
Trude Eid Robsahm
Magne Bråtveit
Sven Ove Samuelsen
Jorunn Kirkeleit
Tom Kristian Grimsrud
Author Affiliation
Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2017 Aug; 60(8):679-688
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Benzene - toxicity
Case-Control Studies
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - toxicity
Male
Melanoma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Oil and Gas Industry
Petroleum - toxicity
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Abstract
We prospectively examined skin cancer risk according to occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons with adjustment for ultraviolet radiation exposure, in a cohort of 24?917 male offshore petroleum workers.
Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression adapted to a stratified case-cohort design.
During 13.5 years of follow-up, 112 cutaneous melanomas (CMs) and 70 non-melanoma skin cancers were identified. Increased risks of CM and of squamous cell carcinoma on the forearm and hand were seen among those ever exposed to crude oil or benzene. For skin cancers of the forearm and hand combined, cumulative and duration metrics of benzene exposure showed Ptrends of 0.031 and 0.003, respectively.
Our results support an association between exposure to crude oil or benzene and skin cancer risk on hands and forearms among offshore petroleum workers. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or benzene may explain this association.
PubMed ID
28692192 View in PubMed
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Association between continuity of care in Swedish primary care and emergency services utilisation: a population-based cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290683
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2017 Jun; 35(2):113-119
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Hannes Kohnke
Andrzej Zielinski
Author Affiliation
a Ronneby Primary Health Care Centre and Blekinge Centre of Competence , Ronneby , Sweden.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2017 Jun; 35(2):113-119
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Continuity of Patient Care - standards
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emergency Medical Services - utilization
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between longitudinal continuity of care (CoC) in Swedish primary care (PC) and emergency services (ES) utilisation.
A cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal population data.
PC centres, out-of-hours PC facilities and emergency departments (EDs) in Blekinge County in southern Sweden.
People of all ages who lived in Blekinge County and who had made two or more visits per year to a general practitioner (GP) during office hours from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014.
ES utilisation.
Eight-thousand one-hundred and eighty-five people were included in the study. CoC was quantified using three different indices-Usual Provider of Care index (UPC), Continuity of Care index (CoCI), and Sequential Continuity index (SECON). The CoC that the PC centres could offer their enrolled patients varied significantly between the different centres, ranging from 0.23-0.57 for UPC, 0.12-0.43 for CoCI, and 0.25-0.52 for SECON. Association between the three CoC indices and ES utilisation was computed as an incidence rate ratio which ranged between 0.50 and 0.59.
Longitudinal CoC was shown to have a negative association with ES utilisation. The association was significant and of a magnitude that implies clinical relevance. Computed incidence rate ratios suggest that patients with the lowest CoC had twice as many ES visits compared to patients with the highest CoC.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28598752 View in PubMed
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Association between perceived stress, multimorbidity and primary care health services: a Danish population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294801
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 24; 8(2):e018323
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-24-2018
Author
Anders Prior
Mogens Vestergaard
Karen Kjær Larsen
Morten Fenger-Grøn
Author Affiliation
Research Unit for General Practice and Section for General Medical Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 24; 8(2):e018323
Date
02-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental Health Services - utilization
Middle Aged
Multimorbidity
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - utilization
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotherapy
Psychotropic Drugs - therapeutic use
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - therapy
Abstract
Mental stress is common in the general population. Mounting evidence suggests that mental stress is associated with multimorbidity, suboptimal care and increased mortality. Delivering healthcare in a biopsychosocial context is key for general practitioners (GPs), but it remains unclear how persons with high levels of perceived stress are managed in primary care. We aimed to describe the association between perceived stress and primary care services by focusing on mental health-related activities and markers of elective/acute care while accounting for mental-physical multimorbidity.
Population-based cohort study.
Primary healthcare in Denmark.
118?410 participants from the Danish National Health Survey 2010 followed for 1?year. Information on perceived stress and lifestyle was obtained from a survey questionnaire. Information on multimorbidity was obtained from health registers.
General daytime consultations, out-of-hours services, mental health-related services and chronic care services in primary care obtained from health registers.
Perceived stress levels were associated with primary care activity in a dose-response relation when adjusted for underlying conditions, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. In the highest stress quintile, 6.8% attended GP talk therapy (highest vs lowest quintile, adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR): 4.96, 95%?CI 4.20 to 5.86), 3.3% consulted a psychologist (IRR: 6.49, 95%?CI 4.90 to 8.58), 21.5% redeemed an antidepressant prescription (IRR: 4.62, 95%?CI 4.03 to 5.31), 23.8% attended annual chronic care consultations (IRR: 1.22, 95%?CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 26.1% used out-of-hours services (IRR: 1.47, 95%?CI 1.51 to 1.68). For those with multimorbidity, stress was associated with more out-of-hours services, but not with more chronic care services.
Persons with high stress levels generally had higher use of primary healthcare, 4-6 times higher use of mental health-related services (most often in the form of psychotropic drug prescriptions), but less timely use of chronic care services.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29478014 View in PubMed
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Association between tubal ligation and endometrial cancer risk: A Swedish population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297528
Source
Int J Cancer. 2018 07 01; 143(1):16-21
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-01-2018
Author
Henrik Falconer
Li Yin
Daniel Altman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2018 07 01; 143(1):16-21
Date
07-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Elective Surgical Procedures
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sterilization, Tubal - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Tubal ligation results in less advanced stages and lower risk of metastatic spread at diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) but the primary preventive effect of the procedure is unclear. In a Swedish nationwide population-based cohort study, we crosslinked registry data for tubal ligation, EC, and death for Swedish women between 1973 and 2010. All women were followed until EC, emigration, hysterectomy for non-cancerous reasons, death, or end of follow-up. Primary outcome was incidence of EC and secondary outcome overall survival. We calculated adjusted incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years and hazard ratios (HR) using Cox regression models. A total of 35,711 cases of EC were identified among 5,385,186 women. The IR of EC among exposed was 17.7 (95% CI 15.7-19.9) versus 29.0 (95% CI 28.7-29.3) among unexposed (per 100,000 women years). Exposed individuals had significantly reduced risk of EC (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65-0.83). The mortality rate among women with EC was 72% lower in exposed compared to unexposed (IR 1,441; 95% CI 1,089-1,907 and IR 5,136; 95% CI 5,065-5,209, respectively) which following adjustment corresponded to a HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.49-1.03). Tubal ligation was associated with lower risk of EC as well as mortality rates in women with EC. Elective tubal ligation may be adopted in future cancer preventive strategies but must be balanced against the irreversibility of the procedure, which preclude further unassisted reproduction.
PubMed ID
29388208 View in PubMed
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