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Are Changes in Alcohol Consumption Among Swedish Youth Really Occurring 'in Concert'? A New Perspective Using Quantile Regression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289636
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Zangin Zeebari
Andreas Lundin
Paul W Dickman
Mats Hallgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Female
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Psychological Theory
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Underage Drinking - trends
Abstract
Recent studies of youth alcohol consumption indicate a collective downward drinking trend at all levels of consumption, i.e. reductions occurring 'in concert'. We re-examine the collectivity of drinking theory by applying quantile regression methods to the analysis and interpretation of Swedish youth alcohol consumption.
Changes in youth alcohol consumption between 2000 and 2014 were assessed using a school-based survey conducted in Stockholm (n = 86,402). Participants were Swedish youth aged 15-18 years. The rate of change in consumption was examined using quantile regression, and compared to Ordinary Least Squares modelling. The hypothesis of parallelism or 'in concert' changes in consumption was assessed using the test of the equality of linear regression slopes corresponding to different quantiles of log consumption.
In both models, changes in consumption over time did not occur in parallel, contrary to the collectivity of drinking theory. Instead, a clear divergence in the rate of drinking was observed, with most adolescent quantiles reducing consumption, while heavy consuming remained stable.
Contrary to previous studies, our findings do not support a collectivity of drinking behaviour among Swedish youth. Quantile regression is a robust and appropriate method for analysing temporal changes in alcohol consumption data.
PubMed ID
28379324 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are Changes in Alcohol Consumption Among Swedish Youth Really Occurring 'in Concert'? A New Perspective Using Quantile Regression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289478
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Zangin Zeebari
Andreas Lundin
Paul W Dickman
Mats Hallgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2017 Jul 01; 52(4):487-495
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Female
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Psychological Theory
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Underage Drinking - trends
Abstract
Recent studies of youth alcohol consumption indicate a collective downward drinking trend at all levels of consumption, i.e. reductions occurring 'in concert'. We re-examine the collectivity of drinking theory by applying quantile regression methods to the analysis and interpretation of Swedish youth alcohol consumption.
Changes in youth alcohol consumption between 2000 and 2014 were assessed using a school-based survey conducted in Stockholm (n = 86,402). Participants were Swedish youth aged 15-18 years. The rate of change in consumption was examined using quantile regression, and compared to Ordinary Least Squares modelling. The hypothesis of parallelism or 'in concert' changes in consumption was assessed using the test of the equality of linear regression slopes corresponding to different quantiles of log consumption.
In both models, changes in consumption over time did not occur in parallel, contrary to the collectivity of drinking theory. Instead, a clear divergence in the rate of drinking was observed, with most adolescent quantiles reducing consumption, while heavy consuming remained stable.
Contrary to previous studies, our findings do not support a collectivity of drinking behaviour among Swedish youth. Quantile regression is a robust and appropriate method for analysing temporal changes in alcohol consumption data.
PubMed ID
28379324 View in PubMed
Less detail

Child mortality in England compared with Sweden: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296015
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-19-2018
Author
Ania Zylbersztejn
Ruth Gilbert
Anders Hjern
Linda Wijlaars
Pia Hardelid
Author Affiliation
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, UK; Population, Policy and Practice Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Electronic address: ania.zylbersztejn@ucl.ac.uk.
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Date
05-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child Mortality
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
England - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference.
We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records. We analysed mortality as the outcome, based on deaths from any cause at age 2-27 days, 28-364 days, and 1-4 years. We fitted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for England compared with Sweden in all three age groups. The models were adjusted for birth characteristics (gestational age, birthweight, sex, and congenital anomalies), and for socioeconomic factors (maternal age and socioeconomic status).
The English cohort comprised 3?932?886 births and 11?392 deaths and the Swedish cohort comprised 1?013?360 births and 1927 deaths. The unadjusted HRs for England compared with Sweden were 1·66 (95% CI 1·53-1·81) at 2-27 days, 1·59 (1·47-1·71) at 28-364 days, and 1·27 (1·15-1·40) at 1-4 years. At 2-27 days, 77% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 3% by socioeconomic factors. At 28-364 days, 68% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 11% by socioeconomic factors. At 1-4 years, the adjusted HR did not indicate a significant difference between countries.
Excess child mortality in England compared with Sweden was largely explained by the unfavourable distribution of birth characteristics in England. Socioeconomic factors contributed to these differences through associations with adverse birth characteristics and increased mortality after 1 month of age. Policies to reduce child mortality in England could have most impact by reducing adverse birth characteristics through improving the health of women before and during pregnancy and reducing socioeconomic disadvantage.
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (through the Medical Research Council, Arthritis Research UK, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Chief Scientist Office, Economic and Social Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Social Care and Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust).
Notes
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CommentIn: Lancet. 2018 May 19;391(10134):1968-1969 PMID 29731174
PubMed ID
29731173 View in PubMed
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Comparing catch efficiency of five models of pot for use in a Newfoundland and Labrador cod fishery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297395
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199702
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Phillip Meintzer
Philip Walsh
Brett Favaro
Author Affiliation
Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199702
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Algorithms
Animals
Body Size
Fisheries - economics - statistics & numerical data
Gadus morhua - physiology
Models, Theoretical
Newfoundland and Labrador
Regression Analysis
Abstract
Sustainability of commercial fisheries is best achieved when fishing gears are selective and have low impacts on bottom habitat. Pots (baited traps) are a fishing technology that typically has lower impacts than many other industrial gears. In this study we compared the efficiency of five models of pots (baited traps) designed to catch Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) for use in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL)'s expanding cod fishery. We compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) and total lengths of cod across each pot type, as well as bycatch rates of each model. All pot types were successful at catching cod, but two models (the modified Newfoundland pot, and a four-entrance pot of our design) had highest CPUE. Specifically, we found that modifying Newfoundland pots increased their CPUE by 145% without a corresponding increase in bycatch. None of the pot types produced substantial amounts of bycatch. This study demonstrated that potting gear is an effective way to catch cod in NL, and that there is flexibility in which pot fishers can use, depending on the layout of their fishing vessel.
PubMed ID
29949631 View in PubMed
Less detail

Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300515
Source
Br J Sociol. 2019 Jan; 70(1):241-260
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund
Tak Wing Chan
Elisabeth Ugreninov
Arnfinn H Midtbøen
Jon Rogstad
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo.
Source
Br J Sociol. 2019 Jan; 70(1):241-260
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Job Application
Male
Norway
Pakistan - ethnology
Personnel Selection
Prejudice - statistics & numerical data
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Social Stigma
Terrorism
Abstract
Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011.
PubMed ID
29363115 View in PubMed
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Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289820
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2017
Author
Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt
Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen
Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen
Axel Skytthe
Jacob V B Hjelmborg
Sören Möller
Kaare Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, The Danish Twin Registry, Unit of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address: lahrenfeldt@health.sdu.dk.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Date
02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Testosterone - blood
Twins, Dizygotic - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life.
We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression.
Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls.
Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28024904 View in PubMed
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Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299910
Source
Health Place. 2018 07; 52:70-84
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Charisse M Johnson-Singh
Mikael Rostila
Antonio Ponce de Leon
Yvonne Forsell
Karin Engström
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Widerströmska Huset, Tomtebodavägen 18A, plan 3, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: Charisse.johnson@ki.se.
Source
Health Place. 2018 07; 52:70-84
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Continental Population Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Social capital
Social Support
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born.
This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances.
Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual horizontal trust showed ethnic heterogeneity to be protective for respondents Swedish-background. There was no clear trend between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress for respondents with foreign-background.
The association between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress differs by ethnic background. There was no difference in this association based on the measure of ethnic heterogeneity used, nor in the explanatory role of social capital between ethnic heterogeneity measures. Socioeconomic indicators and some elements of individual and contextual social capital are important explanatory factors of the excess risk of psychological distress with regards to ethnic heterogeneity.
PubMed ID
29807306 View in PubMed
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The intersection of class origin and immigration background in structuring social capital: the role of transnational ties.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295636
Source
Br J Sociol. 2018 Mar; 69(1):99-123
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Anton Andersson
Christofer Edling
Jens Rydgren
Author Affiliation
Stockholm University.
Source
Br J Sociol. 2018 Mar; 69(1):99-123
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Intergenerational Relations
Iran
Male
Occupations
Parents
Refugees - psychology
Regression Analysis
Social capital
Social Class
Social Networking
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Yugoslavia
Abstract
The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents' education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member's social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts.
PubMed ID
28817176 View in PubMed
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Sex differences in mortality in migrants and the Swedish-born population: Is there a double survival advantage for immigrant women?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300280
Source
Int J Public Health. 2019 Apr; 64(3):377-386
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
Anna Oksuzyan
Eleonora Mussino
Sven Drefahl
Author Affiliation
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 1, 18057, Rostock, Germany. oksuzyan@demogr.mpg.de.
Source
Int J Public Health. 2019 Apr; 64(3):377-386
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Asia - ethnology
Cause of Death
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Sweden - ethnology
Transients and Migrants - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In the present study, we examine whether the relationships between country of origin or reason for migration and mortality differ between men and women.
We apply hazard regression models on high-quality Swedish register data with nationwide coverage.
Relative to their Swedish counterparts, migrants from Nordic and East European (EU) countries and former Yugoslavia have higher mortality. This excess mortality among migrants relative to Swedes is more pronounced in men than in women. Migrants from Western and Southern European countries; Iran, Iraq, and Turkey; Central and South America; and Asia, have lower mortality than Swedes, and the size of the mortality reduction is similar in both sexes. The predictive effects of the reason for migration for mortality are also similar in migrant men and women.
This study provides little support for the hypothesis of a double survival advantage among immigrant women in Sweden. However, it does show that the excess mortality in migrants from Nordic and EU countries and former Yugoslavia relative to the Swedish-born population is more pronounced in men than in women.
PubMed ID
30799526 View in PubMed
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