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Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209090
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
J R Brook
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Health Care Surveys
Heart Failure - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Incidence
Linear Models
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Abstract
We examined the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiac disease by relating daily fluctuations in admissions to 134 hospitals for congestive heart failure in the elderly to daily variations in ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and the coefficient of haze in Canada's 10 largest cities for the 11-year period 1981-1991 inclusive. We adjusted the hospitalization time series for seasonal, subseasonal, and weekly cycles and for hospital usage patterns. The logarithm of the daily high-hour ambient carbon monoxide concentration recorded on the day of admission displayed the strongest and most consistent association with hospitalization rates among the pollutants, after stratifying the time series by month of year and adjusting simultaneously for temperature, dew point, and the other ambient air pollutants. The relative risk for a change from 1 ppm to 3 ppm, the 25th and 75th percentiles of the exposure distribution, was 1.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.028-1.104). The regression coefficients of the other air pollutants were much more sensitive to simultaneous adjustment for either multiple pollutant or weather model specifications.
PubMed ID
9229208 View in PubMed
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Association between ozone and asthma emergency department visits in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210417
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104(12):1354-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1996
Author
D M Stieb
R T Burnett
R C Beveridge
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Air Quality Health Effects Research Section, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104(12):1354-60
Date
Dec-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology
Causality
Child
Confidence Intervals
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Emergency Medical Services - utilization
Female
Humans
Male
New Brunswick - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Recurrence
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
This study examines the relationship of asthma emergency department (ED) visits to daily concentrations of ozone and other air pollutants in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Data on ED visits with a presenting complaint of asthma (n = 1987) were abstracted for the period 1984-1992 (May-September). Air pollution variables included ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfate, and total suspended particulate (TSP); weather variables included temperature, humidex, dewpoint, and relative humidity. Daily ED visit frequencies were filtered to remove day of the week and long wave trends, and filtered values were regressed on air pollution and weather variables for the same day and the 3 previous days. The mean daily 1-hr maximum ozone concentration during the study period was 41.6 ppb. A positive, statistically significant (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
9118879 View in PubMed
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Association between ozone and hospitalization for respiratory diseases in 16 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210280
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
R T Burnett
J R Brook
W T Yung
R E Dales
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Environmental Health Center, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. rick-burnett@isdtcp3.hwc.ca
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants
Canada
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Abstract
The effects of tropospheric ozone on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been well documented at relatively high concentrations. However, previous investigations have failed to establish a clear association between tropospheric ozone and respiratory diseases severe enough to require hospitalization after controlling for climate, and with gaseous and particulate air pollution at the lower concentrations typically observed in Canada today. To determine if low levels of tropospheric ozone contribute to hospitalization for respiratory disease, air pollution data were compared to hospital admissions for 16 cities across Canada representing 12.6 million people. During the 3927-day period from April 1, 1981, to December 31, 1991, there were 720,519 admissions for which the principle diagnosis was a respiratory disease. After controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, soiling index, and dew point temperature, the daily high hour concentration of ozone recorded 1 day previous to the date of admission was positively associated with respiratory admissions in the April to December period but not in the winter months. The relative risk for a 30 ppb increase in ozone varied from 1.043 (P
PubMed ID
9012369 View in PubMed
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Associations between ambient particulate sulfate and admissions to Ontario hospitals for cardiac and respiratory diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214790
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1995
Author
R T Burnett
R. Dales
D. Krewski
R. Vincent
T. Dann
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Date
Jul-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
The association of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, with daily levels of particulate sulfates was examined over the 6-year period 1983-1988. Sulfate levels were recorded at nine monitoring stations in regions of southern and central Ontario spanned by three monitoring networks. A 13-micrograms/m3 increase in sulfates recorded on the day prior to admission (the 95th percentile) was associated with a 3.7% (p
PubMed ID
7785669 View in PubMed
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Associations between daily cause-specific mortality and concentrations of ground-level ozone in Montreal, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192698
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Nov 1;154(9):817-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J. Brook
J C Bailar
M F Valois
R. Vincent
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Nov 1;154(9):817-26
Date
Nov-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Analysis of Variance
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - mortality
Cause of Death
Diabetes Mellitus - etiology - mortality
Digestive System Diseases - etiology - mortality
Humans
Kidney Diseases - etiology - mortality
Linear Models
Meteorological Concepts
Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Poisson Distribution
Quebec - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Respiration Disorders - etiology - mortality
Risk factors
Seasons
Abstract
The authors investigated the association between daily variations in ozone and cause-specific mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, provided daily mean levels of ozone, particles, and other gaseous pollutants. Information on the date and underlying cause of death was obtained for residents of Montreal who died in the city between 1984 and 1993. The authors regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on mean levels of ozone, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, and weather variables. The effect of ozone on mortality was generally higher in the warm season and among persons aged 65 years or over. For an increase in the 3-day running mean concentration of ozone of 21.3 microg/m(3), the percentage of increase in daily deaths in the warm season was the following: nonaccidental deaths, 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 5.0); cancer, 3.9% (95% CI: 1.0, 6.91); cardiovascular diseases, 2.5% (95% CI: 0.2, 5.0); and respiratory diseases, 6.6% (95% CI: 1.8, 11.8). These results were independent of the effects of other pollutants and were consistent with a log-linear response function.
PubMed ID
11682364 View in PubMed
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Effect of short-term exposure to gaseous pollution on asthma hospitalisation in children: a bi-directional case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187332
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
M. Lin
Y. Chen
R T Burnett
P J Villeneuve
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Child
Cross-Over Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Gases - adverse effects
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Assess associations between short-term exposure to gaseous pollutants and asthma hospitalisation among boys and girls 6 to12 years of age.
A bi-directional case-crossover analysis was used. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to the data for boys and girls separately. Exposures averaged over periods ranging from one to seven days were used to assess the effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation. Estimated relative risks for asthma hospitalisation were calculated for an incremental exposure corresponding to the interquartile range in pollutant levels, adjusted for daily weather conditions and concomitant exposure to particulate matter.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
A total of 7319 asthma hospitalisations for children 6 to 12 years of age (4629 for boys and 2690 for girls) in Toronto between 1981 and 1993.
A significant acute effect of carbon monoxide on asthma hospitalisation was found in boys, and sulphur dioxide showed significant effects of prolonged exposure in girls. Nitrogen dioxide was positively associated with asthma admissions in both sexes. The lag time for certain gaseous pollutant effects seemed to be shorter in boys (around two to three days for carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide), as compared with girls (about six to seven days for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide). The effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation remained after adjustment of particulate matter. The data showed no association between ozone and asthma hospitalisation in children.
The study showed positive relations between gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) at comparatively low levels and asthma hospitalisation in children, using bi-directional case-crossover analyses. Though, the effects of certain specific gaseous pollutants were found to vary in boys and girls.
Notes
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Comment In: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Feb;58(2):157; author reply 157-814729901
PubMed ID
12490649 View in PubMed
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The effect of the urban ambient air pollution mix on daily mortality rates in 11 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205205
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):152-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
R T Burnett
S. Cakmak
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. rickvburnett@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):152-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Mortality - trends
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Statistics, nonparametric
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
Determine the risk of premature mortality due to the urban ambient air pollution mix in Canada.
The number of daily deaths for non-accidental causes were obtained in 11 cities from 1980 to 1991 and linked to concentrations of ambient gaseous air pollutants using relative risk regression models for longitudinal count data.
Nitrogen dioxide had the largest effect on mortality with a 4.1% increased risk (p
Notes
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):228, 238, 240 passim9735513
PubMed ID
9654797 View in PubMed
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Effects of low ambient levels of ozone and sulfates on the frequency of respiratory admissions to Ontario hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218206
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
P W Summers
G R Roberts
M. Raad-Young
T. Dann
J. Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Center, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the acute respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution, the number of emergency of urgent daily respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario were related to estimates of exposure to ozone and sulfates in the vicinity of each hospital. Ozone levels were obtained from 22 monitoring stations maintained by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for the period January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1988. Daily levels of sulfates were recorded at nine monitoring stations representing three different networks operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada. Positive and statistically significant associations were found between hospital admissions and both ozone and sulfates recorded on the day of admission and up to 3 days prior to the date of admission. Five percent of daily respiratory admissions in the months of May to August were associated with ozone, with sulfates accounting for an additional 1% of these admissions. Ozone was a stronger predictor of admissions than sulfates. Positive and statistically significant (P
PubMed ID
8187735 View in PubMed
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Methods for detecting and estimating population threshold concentrations for air pollution-related mortality with exposure measurement error.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198912
Source
Risk Anal. 1999 Jun;19(3):487-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
S. Cakmak
R T Burnett
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Risk Anal. 1999 Jun;19(3):487-96
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Computer simulation
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Models, Statistical
Mortality
Nonlinear Dynamics
Ontario - epidemiology
Population
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
The association between daily fluctuations in ambient particulate matter and daily variations in nonaccidental mortality have been extensively investigated. Although it is now widely recognized that such an association exists, the form of the concentration-response model is still in question. Linear, no threshold and linear threshold models have been most commonly examined. In this paper we considered methods to detect and estimate threshold concentrations using time series data of daily mortality rates and air pollution concentrations. Because exposure is measured with error, we also considered the influence of measurement error in distinguishing between these two completing model specifications. The methods were illustrated on a 15-year daily time series of nonaccidental mortality and particulate air pollution data in Toronto, Canada. Nonparametric smoothed representations of the association between mortality and air pollution were adequate to graphically distinguish between these two forms. Weighted nonlinear regression methods for relative risk models were adequate to give nearly unbiased estimates of threshold concentrations even under conditions of extreme exposure measurement error. The uncertainty in the threshold estimates increased with the degree of exposure error. Regression models incorporating threshold concentrations could be clearly distinguished from linear relative risk models in the presence of exposure measurement error. The assumption of a linear model given that a threshold model was the correct form usually resulted in overestimates in the number of averted premature deaths, except for low threshold concentrations and large measurement error.
PubMed ID
10765418 View in PubMed
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A panel study in congestive heart failure to estimate the short-term effects from personal factors and environmental conditions on oxygen saturation and pulse rate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155117
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Oct;65(10):659-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
M S Goldberg
N. Giannetti
R T Burnett
N E Mayo
M-F Valois
J M Brophy
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Avenue West, R4.29, Montreal, Quebec H3A1A1. mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Oct;65(10):659-66
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Atmospheric Pressure
Female
Health status
Heart Failure - etiology - physiopathology
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Oxygen - blood
Particulate Matter - toxicity
Quebec
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that persons with congestive heart failure (CHF) may be at higher risk for short-term effects of air pollution. This daily diary panel study in Montreal, Quebec, was carried out to determine whether oxygen saturation and pulse rate were associated with selected personal factors, weather conditions and air pollution.
Thirty-one subjects with CHF participated in this study in 2002 and 2003. Over a 2-month period, the investigators measured their oxygen saturation, pulse rate, weight and temperature each morning and recorded these and other data in a daily diary. Air pollution and weather conditions were obtained from fixed-site monitoring stations. The study made use of mixed regression models, adjusting for within-subject serial correlation and temporal trends, to determine the association between oxygen saturation and pulse rate and personal and environmental variables. Depending on the model, we accounted for the effects of a variety of personal variables (eg, body temperature, salt consumption) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, maximum temperature and change in barometric pressure at 8:00 from the previous day.
In multivariable analyses, the study found that oxygen saturation was reduced when subjects reported that they were ill, consumed salt, or drank liquids on the previous day and had higher body temperatures on the concurrent day (only the latter was statistically significant). Relative humidity and decreased atmospheric pressure from the previous day were associated with oxygen saturation. In univariate analyses, there was negative associations with concentrations of fine particulates, ozone, and sulphur dioxide (SO2), but only SO2 was significant after adjustment for the effects of weather. For pulse rate, no associations were found for the personal variables and in univariate analyses the study found positive associations with NO(2), fine particulates (aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or under, PM(2.5)), SO2, and maximum temperature, although only the latter two were significant after adjustment for environmental effects.
The findings from the present investigation suggest that personal and environmental conditions affect intermediate physiological parameters that may affect the health of CHF patients.
PubMed ID
18801926 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.