We examined whether childhood disruptive behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity and social adjustment), predicts adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP), i.e., educational level, occupational status and income and social mobility.
Social mobility was defined by comparing the participants' adulthood socioeconomic position with that of their parents ("intergenerational social mobility"). The subjects were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 3,600) and our sample consisted of 782 participants (403 women) aged 3-9 years at baseline and were followed until they were aged 30-36.
High childhood aggression associated with low educational level and occupational status suggesting an early beginning negative tracking of aggressive behavior. High hyperactivity and poor social adjustment predicted adulthood low occupational status proposing a more slow effect on adulthood SEP. No associations between disruptive behavior and income-related mobility were found, but high hyperactivity associated with educational downward drift, whereas high aggression and low social adjustment related with occupational downward drift.
Results suggest that childhood disruptive behavior may have long-lasting negative effects. In order to reduce the adverse effects of disruptive behavior, early intervention of problematic behavior becomes salient.
Psychological factors may be important determinants of adherence to antihypertensive medication, as they have been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and health-damaging behaviours. We examined the importance of several psychological attributes (sense of coherence, optimism, pessimism, hostility, anxiety) with regard to antihypertensive medication adherence assessed by pharmacy refill records.
A total of 1021 hypertensive participants, aged 26-63 years, who were employees in eight towns and 12 hospitals in Finland were included in the analyses.
We found 60% of patients to be totally adherent, 36% partially adherent, and 4% totally nonadherent. Multinomial regression analyses revealed high sense of coherence to be associated with lower odds of being totally nonadherent in contrast of being totally adherent (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.96). This association was independent of factors that influenced adherence to antihypertensive medication, such as sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, self-reported medical history of doctor-diagnosed comorbidity, and anteriority of hypertension status. The association was not specific to certain types of antihypertensive drugs.
High sense of coherence may influence antihypertensive medication-adherence behaviour. Aspects characterizing this psychological attribute, such as knowledge (comprehensibility), capacity (manageability), and motivation (meaningfulness) may be important determinants of adherence behaviour for asymptomatic illnesses, such as hypertension, in which patients often do not feel or perceive the immediate consequences of skipping medication doses.
Cites: J Gen Intern Med. 2002 Jul;17(7):504-1112133140
Cites: Am J Nurs. 2001 Jun;101(6):37-43; quiz 4411441760
An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association.
The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not) and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility), sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions), and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity), were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers.
Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23) higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05). The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11) and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14). Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors.
These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.
While many associations between neighborhood characteristics and individual well-being have been reported, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that could provide evidence for or against causal interpretations of neighborhood effects. This study examined whether neighborhood urbanicity and socioeconomic status were associated with within-individual variation in depression, mistrust and social support when individuals were living in different neighborhoods with different levels of urbanicity and socioeconomic status. Participants were from the Young Finns prospective cohort study (N = 3074) with five repeated measurement times in 1992, 1997, 2001, 2007, and 2011. Neighborhood urbanicity and socioeconomic status were measured at the level of municipalities and zip-code areas. Within-individual variation over time was examined with multilevel regression, which adjusted the models for all stable individual differences that might confound associations between neighborhood characteristics and individual well-being. Social support from friends was higher in urban areas and in areas with higher socioeconomic status, whereas social support from the family was higher in rural areas. These associations were observed also in the within-individual analyses, and they were partly accounted for by employment and socioeconomic status of the participants. There were no associations between neighborhood characteristics and depression or mistrust. These findings suggest that people receive less support from their families and more support from their friends when living in urban compared to rural regions of Finland. These differences are partly explained by people's changing socioeconomic and employment statuses.
This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching.
We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age.
Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep.
Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
Occupational stress is assumed to arise from social arrangements that are partially determined by the modes of organization of work. However, there is little systematic research on the extent to which modes of organizing nursing work are related to stressful characteristics of work.
This study explored the relationship between modes of organizing nursing and stress.
Survey responses on modes of organization of nursing were collected from 27 ward sisters and those on stressful work characteristics from 568 nurses working in 27 wards with different nursing modes.
Four different nursing modes (primary, modular, team and functional nursing) were not consistently associated with stress. Statistically significant associations involved only certain features of these modes and specific components of stress. After the effects of demographic and ward characteristics were controlled for, hierarchical regression analyses showed that opportunity to write nursing notes decreased the likelihood of nurses' stress because of problems in interpersonal relationships. Writing nursing notes is common in patient-focused nursing modes (primary and modular nursing). Other features of nursing modes were not associated with stress.
In general, nursing mode is not associated with stressful job characteristics. However, certain aspects of patient-focused nursing reduce the likelihood of interpersonal problems among staff.
This study examined the relationship between methods of organizing nursing and employee satisfaction. Data were collected from 26 ward sisters and 568 nurses working in 26 bed wards with different stabilized nursing models. Methods of organizing nursing, such as primary, modular, team and functional nursing, were associated with job satisfaction. However, this association involved only certain features of these organizational models and specific components of satisfaction. After the effects of demographic and ward characteristics were partialed out, hierarchical regression analyses showed that patient-focused work allocation, opportunity to write nursing notes and accountability for patient care contributed to nurses' satisfaction with supervision and personal growth. The relationships of duty rota and liaison with other discipline to job satisfaction were weaker or non-existing.
Primary nursing and team nursing are two different ways of organizing nurses' work in hospital wards. This study examined whether primary nursing is associated with lower sickness absence rates than team nursing is.
Altogether 1213 nurses from 13 primary nursing wards and 13 team nursing wards participated in a 3-year observational study. The nurses' sickness absence records were linked with information on the organization of nursing in the wards.
After adjustment for demographic and ward characteristics, primary nursing, compared with team nursing, was associated with 26-42% higher annual rates of short (1-3 days) spells of sickness absence (P3 days) absences, depending on the year (P
This study examined whether temperament dimensions, as indicated by Cloninger's psychobiological model [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], predicted depressive symptoms across a 4-year follow-up.
Nine hundred ninety-three women and 583 men from the on-going population-based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns" completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory [Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., 1987. Manual for the Revised Beck Depression Inventory. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX; Katainen, S., Raikkonen, K., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., 1999. Adolescent temperament, perceived social support and depressive tendencies as predictors of depressive tendencies in young adulthood. Eur. J. Pers. 13, 183-207] and the Perceived Social Support Scale-R [Blumenthal, J.A., Burg, M.M., Barefoot, J., Williams, R.B., Haney, T., Zimet, G., 1987. Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery disease. Psychosom. Med. 49, 331-340].
Results of hierarchical linear regression models showed that the temperament subscales impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fatigability, sentimentality, and persistence increased the risk of depressive symptoms independently of a wide variety of known risk factors for depression. The association between fatigability and depressive symptoms was stronger for participants with low social support than for those reporting high social support.
The sample was restricted to men and women aged 20-35 at baseline and no clinically significant cut-point for depression was defined.
Our results strengthen the view that depressive symptoms are independently influenced by temperamental dispositions.
Comment On: J Affect Disord. 1998 Oct;51(1):21-329879800
Average body weight differences between urban and rural areas have been reported in many countries, but it is unknown whether these are due to effects of social selection or social causation. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI) predicted selective urban/rural migration over a 21-year period and whether urban/rural living over the same period predicted differences in BMI increase from adolescence to adulthood in Finland. The participants were from the prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (n=1787) aged 12-18 years at baseline and 33-39 years at the final follow-up, with data collected at six follow-up phases. Supporting social selection, heavier adolescents were less likely to migrate to urban areas as adults: in obese adolescents the likelihood of living in an urban area at 33-39 years age was one third of that in normal weight adolescents. Supporting social causation, rural residence over the study period predicted a greater increase in BMI from adolescence to adulthood than urban residence did. These associations were independent of parental socioeconomic status and BMI, and of participants' own educational level, occupational class, marital status, and parenthood status. Together the findings suggest that the higher body weight of people living in rural areas of Finland may be due to both social selection and social causation mechanisms, i.e. heavier people tend to migrate to more rural areas where people tend to get heavier.