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Alcohol and coronary heart disease risk--is there an unknown confounder?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173661
Source
Addiction. 2005 Aug;100(8):1150-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Kari Poikolainen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Anne Linna
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Helsinki, Finland. kari.poikolainen@stakes.fi
Source
Addiction. 2005 Aug;100(8):1150-7
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
To evaluate whether confounding by several known or suspected coronary heart disease risk factors are likely to explain the lower coronary heart disease risk among light alcohol drinkers compared with never-drinkers.
A population-based cross-sectional study.
Hypertension, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, depression, sleep disturbances, smoking, physical activity, life satisfaction, psychological distress, trait anxiety, independent and dependent life events, length of working hours, job control, job strain and effort-reward imbalance were compared between never-drinkers and light drinkers (
PubMed ID
16042645 View in PubMed
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Changes in Sleep Duration During Transition to Statutory Retirement: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286863
Source
Sleep. 2017 Jul 01;40(7)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Saana Myllyntausta
Paula Salo
Erkki Kronholm
Ville Aalto
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Sari Stenholm
Source
Sleep. 2017 Jul 01;40(7)
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Employment - psychology
Female
Finland
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Public Sector
Regression Analysis
Retirement - psychology
Sleep - physiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
This study examined whether sleep duration changes during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement and, if this were the case, which preretirement factors, including sociodemographic, work, lifestyle, and health factors, predict these changes.
Data from repeated surveys of the Finnish Public Sector study, linked to records of retirement, were used. The study population consisted of 5785 participants who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who had responded to surveys on sleep duration at least once immediately before and after their retirement (mean number of repeat study waves 3.6). Linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in sleep duration around retirement.
Before retirement there was a slight decrease in sleep duration. During the 4-year retirement transition, sleep duration increased from 7 hours 0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 hours 54 minutes to 7 hours 6 minutes) to 7 hours and 22 minutes (95% CI 7 hours 16 minutes to 7 hours 27 minutes); thus, mean increase being 22 minutes. Increase in sleep duration was greatest in those who were short sleepers, heavy drinkers, or had sleep difficulties. After the retirement transition, sleep duration remained at approximately the same level, as no significant changes were observed.
This longitudinal study suggests that transition from full-time work to statutory retirement is associated with an increase in sleep duration.
PubMed ID
28541436 View in PubMed
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Do psychological attributes matter for adherence to antihypertensive medication? The Finnish Public Sector Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154722
Source
J Hypertens. 2008 Nov;26(11):2236-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Hermann Nabi
Jussi Vahtera
Archana Singh-Manoux
Jaana Pentti
Tuula Oksanen
David Gimeno
Marko Elovainio
Marianna Virtanen
Timo Klaukka
Mika Kivimaki
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. H.Nabi@public-health.ucl.ac.uk
Source
J Hypertens. 2008 Nov;26(11):2236-43
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Female
Finland
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Compliance - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Treatment Refusal - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Psychological factors may be important determinants of adherence to antihypertensive medication, as they have been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and health-damaging behaviours. We examined the importance of several psychological attributes (sense of coherence, optimism, pessimism, hostility, anxiety) with regard to antihypertensive medication adherence assessed by pharmacy refill records.
A total of 1021 hypertensive participants, aged 26-63 years, who were employees in eight towns and 12 hospitals in Finland were included in the analyses.
We found 60% of patients to be totally adherent, 36% partially adherent, and 4% totally nonadherent. Multinomial regression analyses revealed high sense of coherence to be associated with lower odds of being totally nonadherent in contrast of being totally adherent (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.96). This association was independent of factors that influenced adherence to antihypertensive medication, such as sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, self-reported medical history of doctor-diagnosed comorbidity, and anteriority of hypertension status. The association was not specific to certain types of antihypertensive drugs.
High sense of coherence may influence antihypertensive medication-adherence behaviour. Aspects characterizing this psychological attribute, such as knowledge (comprehensibility), capacity (manageability), and motivation (meaningfulness) may be important determinants of adherence behaviour for asymptomatic illnesses, such as hypertension, in which patients often do not feel or perceive the immediate consequences of skipping medication doses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18854766 View in PubMed
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Employment status and differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits: different needs or unequal access to services?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167233
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:123
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Pekka Virtanen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Markku Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. pekka.j.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:123
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Dental Care - utilization
Employment - classification - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Health Care Surveys
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Needs and Demand - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insurance Coverage
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services - utilization
Odds Ratio
Office Visits - utilization
Outpatient Clinics, Hospital - utilization
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - utilization
Private Practice - utilization
Regression Analysis
Abstract
The dichotomy employed vs. unemployed is still a relevant, but rather crude measure of status in current labour markets. Also, studies concerning the association of employment status with health have to specify the type of the employment as well as the characteristics of the unemployment. This study aims to reveal differences and potential inequalities in physician visits among seven groups in the core-periphery structures of the labour markets.
A total of 16,000 Finns responded to a postal survey in 2003. Their visits to physicians in public primary health care, occupational health care, private health services, hospital outpatient clinics and dental care services during previous year were measured as indicators of service utilisation. Participants were classified as employees having a permanent or fixed-term and full-time or part-time contract and as those experiencing short-term, prolonged or long-term unemployment. Differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits between these groups of employees were analysed using logistic regression analyses where differences in the need for services were controlled for by including demographics and self-rated health assessments in the models.
Permanently employed respondents had visited a physician most often, and the need-adjusted regression models showed significantly lower odds ratios for a visit among fixed-term employees (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81) and in particular among the long-term unemployed (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31). A stratified analysis according to health care sector showed the lowest odds ratios in occupational health care and private physicians (ORs between 0.05 and 0.73) and also low odds ratios for dentists (ORs between 0.45 and 0.91), whereas visits to public primary health care were more common among non-permanent employees and the unemployed (ORs between 1.46 and 2.39).
The use of physician services varies according to labour market status, being relatively low among the non-permanently employed and the unemployed. This underuse is emphasised when clinical need is taken into account. The main reasons for the variance evidently lie in the structures of the Finnish health service system. The result may indicate non-optimal health care of the population on the periphery of the labour market, but it may also reflect the importance of employment status as a context for need and the decision to visit a physician.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17014702 View in PubMed
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Labor market trajectories and health: a four-year follow-up study of initially fixed-term employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175178
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 1;161(9):840-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2005
Author
Pekka Virtanen
Jussi Vahtera
Mika Kivimäki
Virpi Liukkonen
Marianna Virtanen
Jane Ferrie
Author Affiliation
Medical School, University of Tampere, FN-33014 Tampere, Finland. pekka.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 1;161(9):840-6
Date
May-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Career Mobility
Confidence Intervals
Employment - classification - psychology - trends
Female
Finland
Health status
Humans
Marital status
Occupations
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
With the growth of atypical employment, there is increasing concern about the potential health-damaging effects of unstable employment. This prospective study of Finnish public-sector employees in 1998-2002 examined labor market trajectories and changes in health. At entry, all participants had a fixed-term job contract. Trajectories were measured by exposure to unstable employment during follow-up, destination employment status at the end of follow-up, and the way in which these elements were combined. Nonoptimal self-rated health at baseline was associated with high exposure to unstable employment and unemployment as the destination. After adjustment for health and psychological distress at baseline, a trajectory with stable employment as the destination was associated with a decreased risk of psychological distress at follow-up (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.98), whereas a trajectory toward the labor market periphery was related to increased risk of nonoptimal health (odds ratio = 2.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.39) when compared with remaining in fixed-term employment. A significant dose-response relation was seen between the measure combining exposure to instability with destination employment status and nonoptimal health. This longitudinal study provides evidence of health-related selection into employment trajectories and suggests that the trajectories themselves carry different health risks.
PubMed ID
15840616 View in PubMed
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Organisational justice protects against the negative effect of workplace violence on teachers' sleep: a longitudinal cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284723
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul;74(7):511-516
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Kia Gluschkoff
Marko Elovainio
Taina Hintsa
Jaana Pentti
Paula Salo
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul;74(7):511-516
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Faculty - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Organizational Culture
Regression Analysis
Schools
Sleep
Sleep Wake Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Social Justice
Stress, Psychological
Surveys and Questionnaires
Workplace - psychology
Workplace Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching.
We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age.
Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep.
Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
PubMed ID
28298417 View in PubMed
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Pupils with special educational needs in basic education schools and teachers' sickness absences--a register-linkage study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126883
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jenni Ervasti
Mika Kivimäki
Ichiro Kawachi
S V Subramanian
Jaana Pentti
Kirsi Ahola
Tuula Oksanen
Tiina Pohjonen
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations, Helsinki, Finland. jenni.ervasti@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012 May;38(3):209-17
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Confidence Intervals
Education, Special - statistics & numerical data
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Needs Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Stress, Psychological - complications - psychology
Students - statistics & numerical data
Teaching - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school.
We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004-2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term.
After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10).
Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.
PubMed ID
22344461 View in PubMed
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Role clarity, fairness, and organizational climate as predictors of sickness absence: a prospective study in the private sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175776
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(6):426-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Ari Väänänen
Raija Kalimo
Salla Toppinen-Tanner
Pertti Mutanen
José Maria Peiró
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Psychology, Helsinki, Finland. Ari.Vaananen@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(6):426-34
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Organizational Culture
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Role
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Workplace
Abstract
The majority of the research on the effects of the psychosocial work environment on sickness absenteeism has focused on components of job strain and social support among public sector employees without stratification by socioeconomic status. The authors examined less-studied work-related psychosocial predictors of sickness absence in the private sector by socioeconomic status.
Questionnaire data on psychosocial factors at work were used to predict the rates of recorded short (1-3 days), long (4-21 days), and very long (over 21 days) sickness absences among 3,850 white- and blue-collar male and female employees in a large-scale enterprise. Multivariate Poisson regression models were adjusted for age, prior absence, and psychosocial factors at work.
In white-collar men, low role clarity was associated with a 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-7.1) times greater rate of very long absences than high role clarity. Low fairness in the division of labor predicted a 1.3-fold (95% CI 1.1-1.5) rate of long absences in blue-collar men. In blue-collar women, poor organizational climate was associated with a 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5) times greater rate of short absence spells than favorable organizational climate but among white-collar women all associations between work-related psychosocial factors and sickness absenteeism were weak.
These findings indicate that the actions to reduce psychosocial risk factors of sickness absence should match the specific needs of each socioeconomic group.
PubMed ID
15762027 View in PubMed
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School neighborhood disadvantage as a predictor of long-term sick leave among teachers: prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145258
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr 1;171(7):785-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2010
Author
Marianna Virtanen
Mika Kivimäki
Jaana Pentti
Tuula Oksanen
Kirsi Ahola
Anne Linna
Anne Kouvonen
Paula Salo
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Work, and Organizations, Helsinki, Finland. marianna.virtanen@ttl.fi
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr 1;171(7):785-92
Date
Apr-1-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Income
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Multivariate Analysis
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Poverty Areas
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This ongoing prospective study examined characteristics of school neighborhood and neighborhood of residence as predictors of sick leave among school teachers. School neighborhood income data for 226 lower-level comprehensive schools in 10 towns in Finland were derived from Statistics Finland and were linked to register-based data on 3,063 teachers with no long-term sick leave at study entry. Outcome was medically certified (>9 days) sick leave spells during a mean follow-up of 4.3 years from data collection in 2000-2001. A multilevel, cross-classified Poisson regression model, adjusted for age, type of teaching job, length and type of job contract, school size, baseline health status, and income level of the teacher's residential area, showed a rate ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.63) for sick leave among female teachers working in schools located in low-income neighborhoods compared with those working in high-income neighborhoods. A low income level of the teacher's residential area was also independently associated with sick leave among female teachers (rate ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.91). Exposure to both low-income school neighborhoods and low-income residential neighborhoods was associated with the greatest risk of sick leave (rate ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.30). This study indicates that working and living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with increased risk of sick leave among female teachers.
PubMed ID
20179159 View in PubMed
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Sickness absence and the organization of nursing care among hospital nurses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176724
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2004 Dec;30(6):468-76; quiz 476
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Mika Kivimäki
Arja Mäkinen
Marko Elovainio
Jussi Vahtera
Marianna Virtanen
Jenny Firth-Cozens
Author Affiliation
University of Helsinki and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. mika.kivimaki@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2004 Dec;30(6):468-76; quiz 476
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Nursing
Nursing Staff, Hospital - organization & administration
Patient care team
Personnel Staffing and Scheduling - organization & administration
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Primary nursing and team nursing are two different ways of organizing nurses' work in hospital wards. This study examined whether primary nursing is associated with lower sickness absence rates than team nursing is.
Altogether 1213 nurses from 13 primary nursing wards and 13 team nursing wards participated in a 3-year observational study. The nurses' sickness absence records were linked with information on the organization of nursing in the wards.
After adjustment for demographic and ward characteristics, primary nursing, compared with team nursing, was associated with 26-42% higher annual rates of short (1-3 days) spells of sickness absence (P3 days) absences, depending on the year (P
PubMed ID
15633598 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.