It has been suggested that high fish consumption improves mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether high fish consumption or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was associated with reduced self-reported psychological distress.
We used three cross-sectional data sets, the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5840), the Fishermen Study on Finnish fishermen and their family members (n = 1282) and the Finntwin16 Study on young adults (n = 4986). Data were based on self-administered questionnaires, interviews, health examinations and blood samples. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item and 21-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQs). Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Relationships were analysed using regression analysis.
Regardless of the measure, fish consumption and omega-3 PUFA dietary intake were not associated with distress in any of the data sets. In contrast to the hypothesis, high serum docosahexaenoic acid was associated with high distress in the Fisherman Study men. Some non-linear associations were detected between serum omega-3 PUFAs or fish consumption (times/month) and distress. In the Fishermen Study, the associations were modified by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that fish consumption or omega-3 PUFA intake are associated with reduced psychological distress in the general population or in a population with high fish consumption.
Inability to maintain balance while standing increases risk of falls in older people. The present study assessed whether center of pressure (COP) movement measured with force platform technology predicts risk for falls among older people with no manifest deficiency in standing balance.
Participants were 434 community-dwelling women, aged 63-76 years. COP was measured in six stances on a force platform. Following balance tests, participants reported their falls with 12 monthly calendars. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed from negative binomial regression models. For the analysis, those with > or =1 fall indoors were coded "indoor fallers," those with > or =1 fall outdoors, but no indoor falls, were coded "outdoor fallers." Outcome in the models was number of falls. Analyses were repeated including only participants without fall history prior to follow-up.
Among 198 fallers, there were 57 indoor and 132 outdoor fallers. The participants in the highest COP movement tertile, irrespective of the balance test, had a two- to fourfold risk for indoor falls compared to participants in the lowest COP tertile of the test. Inability to complete the tandem stance was also a significant predictor of the fall risk. The trend for increased risk for indoor falls was found also for participants in the highest COP movement tertile and without fall history. The COP movement in balance tests was not associated with outdoor falls.
Force platform balance tests provide valid information of postural control that can be used to predict fall risk even among older people without apparent balance problems or fall history. When the force platform is not available, tandem stance provides a screening tool to show increased fall risk in community-dwelling older people.
This study identified genetic and environmental influences on the tracking of body size from birth to 16 to 18.5 years of age.
Longitudinal information was collected from a nationally representative sample of Finnish twin adolescents (birth cohorts 1975 to 1979) and their parents through questionnaires mailed when the twins were ages 16 and 18.5 years old. The sample included 702 monozygotic, 724 same-sex dizygotic, and 762 opposite-sex dizygotic sets of twins. The measures used were length, weight, ponderal index (kilograms per cubic meters), and gestational age at birth, and height, weight, and body mass index (kilograms per square meters) at 16 to 18.5 years of age. The changes in genetic and environmental influences on body size from birth to early adulthood were analyzed by quantitative genetic modeling.
The twins who had a higher weight or ponderal index at birth were taller and heavier in early adulthood, whereas those who were longer at birth were taller, but not heavier, later in life. Adult height was affected more by the birth size than body mass index. In the genetic modeling analyses, the genetic factors accounting for the variation of body size became more apparent with age, and both genetic and environmental influences on stature had a sizable carry-over effect from birth to late adolescence, whereas for relative weight, the influences were more age-specific.
The genetic and environmental architecture of body size changes from birth to adulthood. Even in monozygotic twins who share their genetic background, the initially larger twin tended to remain larger, demonstrating the long-lasting effects of fetal environment on final body size.
Cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of dementia in later life. The aims of the current study were to assess the effect of multiple midlife cardiovascular risk factors on the risk of cognitive impairment in later life, and to assess the validity of the previously suggested CAIDE Study risk score predicting dementia risk 20?years later. A total of 2,165 Finnish twins were followed and at the end of the follow-up their cognitive status was assessed with a validated telephone interview. The assessment of the risk factors at baseline was based on a self-report questionnaire. Relative risk ratios (RR) were calculated and receiver operating characteristic analyses performed. Midlife obesity (RR 2.42, 95?% CI 1.47-3.98), hypertension (RR 1.38, 95?% CI 1.01-1.88) and low leisure time physical activity (RR 2.52, 95?% CI 1.10-5.76) increased the risk of cognitive impairment after a mean follow-up of 22.6???2.3?years. Hypercholesterolemia did not significantly increase the risk (RR 1.52, 95?% CI 0.92-2.51). Overweight individuals who gained more than 10?% weight between 1981 and 1990 had an increased risk of cognitive impairment (RR 4.27, 95?% CI 1.62-11.2). The CAIDE Study risk score combining various individual risk factors had an area-under-curve of 0.74 (95?% CI 0.69-0.79, n?=?591), and there was a strong association between an increasing risk score and the risk of cognitive impairment. The results indicate that multiple midlife cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of cognitive impairment in later life. Also, a risk score including easily measurable midlife factors predicts an individual's cognitive impairment risk well.
Noise sensitivity is considered to be a self-perceived indicator of vulnerability to stressors in general and not noise alone. Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) has to some extent been accompanied by noise sensitivity, indicating a moderate correspondence between them. The aim of this study is to investigate if the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale and Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory's (QEESI) Chemical Intolerance Subscale can differentiate noise sensitivity and MCS as different entities, and if there are overlaps in the characteristics of noise sensitivity and MCS. In 2002, 327 individuals (166 men, 161 women; age range 45 - 66 years) from the Finnish Twin Cohort answered a questionnaire on noise-related and MCS items. Somatic, psychological, and lifestyle factors were obtained through earlier questionnaires for the same individuals. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA) of the questionnaire items on the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale and QEESI's Chemical Intolerance Subscale indicated the presence of three factors - Noise Sensitivity, Chemical Sensitivity, and Ability to Concentrate factors - arising from the forming of two factors from the items of the Weinstein's scale. In the regression analyses, among all subjects, the Noise Sensitivity Factor was associated with neuroticism and smoking, and the Chemical Sensitivity Factor was associated with allergies and alcohol use. The study indicates that the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale and QEESI's Chemical Intolerance Subscale differentiate noise sensitivity and MCS as different entities.
Physical exercise plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of disabilities in elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine the role of physical activity in the physical and psychological functioning of daily living in a cohort of former elite male athletes representing different sports, and controls of middle and old age.
Subjects were 664 former elite male athletes (mean age 64.4 years) and 500 controls (62.0 years) in middle and old age. Subjects were mailed "Physical activity and health survey" questionnaires in 1985 and 1995. The primary outcomes the physical and psychological functioning of daily living--were assessed in 1995 using items from the Mini-Finland Health Survey. Logistic regression was used for longitudinal as well as cross-sectional analyses to estimate odds ratios (OR) for poor physical and psychological functioning of daily living in relation to recreational physical activity adjusted for age, sport group, life-style, BMI, mood, chronic diseases, personality characteristics, life-events and socio-economic status.
In the longitudinal analysis, low levels of physical activity (lowest MET quintile vs highest quintile) in 1985 (OR 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-11.9), older age (> or =70 yrs vs under 60 yrs OR 9.93, 95% CI 4.90-20.2), depression (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.01-4.09) and anxiety in 1995 (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.34-5.32) increased the risk of poor physical functioning of daily living in 1995, whereas an increase in a physical activity between 1985-1995 (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95) protected against poor physical functioning of daily living. A history of participating in specific types of sports, especially among certain power sports (weight-lifting and track & field throwers) (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.60) and team sports (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.81) did reveal a significant protective effect against poor psychological functioning of daily living in the longitudinal analysis.
This study suggests that an increase in physical exercise supports physical daily functionality. A specific history of sports participation promotes psychological well-being at an older age.
we studied visual acuity (VA) and co-existing hearing impairment and poor standing balance as predictors of falls.
prospective study with 1-year follow-up.
research laboratory and residential environment.
428 women aged 63-76 years from the Finnish Twin Study on Aging.
participants were followed up for incidence of falls over 1 year. VA, hearing ability and standing balance were assessed at the baseline. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for falls were computed using the negative binomial regression model.
during the follow-up, 47% of participants experienced a fall. After adjusting for age and interdependence of twin sisters, participants with vision impairment (VA of
To examine the association of smoking with recurrent dieting and BMI among Finnish adults.
We used questionnaire data from 1990 on 11,055 subjects from the Finnish Twin Cohort who were 33 to 61 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out using lifetime dieting as the outcome variable and smoking as the main explanatory variable, adjusted for BMI and age. Twin pairs discordant for dieting and smoking were studied to examine the effect of environmental and genetic factors.
Among women, current smokers [odds ratio (OR), 1.09 to 1.41 at different ages] and former smokers (OR, 1.52 to 2.82) were more likely to have dieted recurrently than never smokers. Among men, current smokers were less likely (OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55, 0.87) and former smokers were more likely (OR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.61) to have dieted recurrently at different ages. The differences between the discordant pairs were consistent with this, although not statistically significant.
Recurrent dieting was associated with former smoking in both sexes and with current smoking in women.
While physical health has improved considerably over recent decades in Finland, the disease burden of mental health, especially that of depression, has become increasingly demanding. However, we lack long-term data on the natural course of subjective well-being in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term course of self-reported life satisfaction.
This was a 15-year prospective cohort study on a nationwide sample of adult Finnish twins (N = 9679), aged 18-45 and healthy at baseline, who responded to postal questionnaires in 1975, 1981 and 1990 including a 4-item life satisfaction scale (happiness/easiness/interest in life and feelings of loneliness). Life satisfaction score (range: 4-20) was classified into three categories: satisfied (4-6), intermediate (7-11) and dissatisfied group (12-20). The associations between life satisfaction scores during the follow-up were studied with linear/logistic regression.
Moderate stability and only a slight effect of age or birth-cohort on mean life satisfaction score (LS) were detected. In 1990, 56% of all and 31% of the dissatisfied remained in the same LS category as at baseline. Only 5.9% of the study subjects changed from being satisfied to dissatisfied or vice versa. Correlations between continuous scores (1975, 1981 and 1990) were 0.3-0.4. Baseline dissatisfaction (compared to satisfaction) predicted dissatisfaction in 1981 (OR = 10.4; 95%CI 8.3-13.1) and 1990 (5.6; 4.6-6.8). Multiple adjustments decreased the risk only slightly.
Life satisfaction in adult Finns was moderately stable during 15 years. Among an identifiable group (i.e. the dissatisfied) life dissatisfaction may become persistent, which places them at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes.
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;57(4):375-8010768699
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on total sitting time among the Finnish twin cohort. Also, heritability and environmental factors were analysed. The final sample included 6713 twin individuals 53-67 years of age (46% men). Among them there were 1940 complete twin pairs (732 monozygotic [MZ] and 1208 dizygotic [DZ] twin pairs). Sedentary behaviour was queried with a self-reported questionnaire with multiple-choice questions about sitting time at different domains. The mean total sitting time per day was 6 hours 41 minutes (standard deviation: 2 hours 41 minutes). The total sitting time was less in women than in men (P = 0.002). Older age was associated with less total sitting time (P