Studies on the hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in men have indicated covariation between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD). In this study the relationships between BMD in total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal and ultradistal (UD) radius and circulating levels of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and sex steroids were investigated in 55 Swedish men between 22 and 85 (52 +/- 18, mean +/- SD) years of age. BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck was positively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = 0.31 to 0.49), IGF-II (r = 0.32 to 0.48), IGFBP-3 (r = 0.37 to 0.53), and free androgen index (FAI) (r = 0.32 to 0.40), and negatively with IGFBP-1 (r = -0.37 to -0.41) and IGFBP-2 (r = -0.29 to -0.41) levels. A positive correlation was observed between BMD in femoral neck and estradiol/SHBG ratio (r = 0.34, P = 0.01). Age correlated negatively with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, FAI, estradiol/SHBG ratio, and BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck, and positively with IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and SHBG levels. According to stepwise multiple regression analyses, a combination of weight, IGFBP-3, and testosterone accounted for 43% of the variation in BMD in femoral neck, 34% in ultradistal radius and 48% in total body (P
Persistent organochlorines (POCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, are present at relatively high concentrations in food and show estrogenic, anti-estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity in biological test systems. Because bone mineral density (BMD) in men is influenced by sex hormones, we looked for associations between BMD and serum concentrations of POCs in 115 men (mean age 63 years, range 40-75 years) from the general Swedish population. Ten PCB congeners, five DDT isomers, hexachlorobenzene, three hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane were analyzed by gas chromatography. Quantitative bone measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at three sites: whole body, the L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and the neck region of the proximal femur, as well as by quantitative ultrasound on the left os calcis (broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)). After adjustment for confounding factors in linear regression analyses we found no strong association between serum concentrations of single POCs and the five BMD and ultrasound variables. When POCs were grouped according to hormonal activity (estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, anti-androgenic) and the study subjects were divided into organochlorine concentration quartiles, a weak association was indicated between increased serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE (antiandrogenic) and decreased BMD, BUA and SOS. This may suggest that p,p'-DDE could cause negative effects on bone density, but the findings might also be due to chance since multiple comparisons were made in the statistical analysis. Overall our results do not suggest that the studied POCs caused major effects on bone density in our study group.